Please accept my humble obeisance. All glories to Srila Prabhupada,
1. Should we go beyond "the mode of Goodness" or we should always stick to "the mode of Goodness"?
2. Apart from Krishna Bhakti (for non KC), How can someone stick to "the mode of Goodness" or go beyond this?
Reference to Bhagavad Gita/ Srimad Bhagvatam will be hepful for me to understand, prabhuji.
If I am not correct with my question please guide me prabhuji.
Just your Servant
Mind and sense control, tolerance, discrimination, sticking to one's prescribed duty, truthfulness, mercy, careful study of the past and future, satisfaction in any condition, generosity, renunciation of sense gratification, faith in the spiritual master, being embarrassed at improper action, charity, simplicity, humbleness and satisfaction within oneself are qualities of the mode of goodness. Material desire, great endeavor, audacity, dissatisfaction even in gain, false pride, praying for material advancement, considering oneself different and better than others, sense gratification, rash eagerness to fight, a fondness for hearing oneself praised, the tendency to ridicule others, advertising one's own prowess and justifying one's actions by one's strength are qualities of the mode of passion. Intolerant anger, stinginess, speaking without scriptural authority, violent hatred, living as a parasite, hypocrisy, chronic fatigue, quarrel, lamentation, delusion, unhappiness, depression, sleeping too much, false expectations, fear and laziness constitute the major qualities of the mode of ignorance. Now please hear about the combination of these three modes.
A person exhibiting qualities such as self-control is understood to be predominantly in the mode of goodness. Similarly, a passionate person is recognized by his lust, and one in ignorance is recognized by qualities such as anger.
When the mode of goodness, which is luminous, pure and auspicious, predominates over passion and ignorance, a man becomes endowed with happiness, virtue, knowledge and other good qualities.
When consciousness becomes clear and the senses are detached from matter, one experiences fearlessness within the material body and detachment from the material mind. You should understand this situation to be the predominance of the mode of goodness, in which one has the opportunity to realize Me.
With the increase of the mode of goodness, the strength of the demigods similarly increases. When passion increases, the demoniac become strong. And with the rise of ignorance, O Uddhava, the strength of the most wicked increases.
It should be understood that alert wakefulness comes from the mode of goodness, sleep with dreaming from the mode of passion, and deep, dreamless sleep from the mode of ignorance. The fourth state of consciousness pervades these three and is transcendental.
Learned persons dedicated to Vedic culture are elevated by the mode of goodness to higher and higher positions. The mode of ignorance, on the other hand, forces one to fall headfirst into lower and lower births. And by the mode of passion one continues transmigrating through human bodies.
Those who leave this world in the mode of goodness go to the heavenly planets, those who pass away in the mode of passion remain in the world of human beings, and those dying in the mode of ignorance must go to hell. But those who are free from the influence of all modes of nature come to Me.
Work performed as an offering to Me, without consideration of the fruit, is considered to be in the mode of goodness. Work performed with a desire to enjoy the results is in the mode of passion. And work impelled by violence and envy is in the mode of ignorance.
Absolute knowledge is in the mode of goodness, knowledge based on duality is in the mode of passion, and foolish, materialistic knowledge is in the mode of ignorance. Knowledge based upon Me, however, is understood to be transcendental.
Residence in the forest is in the mode of goodness, residence in a town is in the mode of passion, residence in a gambling house displays the quality of ignorance, and residence in a place where I reside is transcendental.
A worker free of attachment is in the mode of goodness, a worker blinded by personal desire is in the mode of passion, and a worker who has completely forgotten how to tell right from wrong is in the mode of ignorance. But a worker who has taken shelter of Me is understood to be transcendental to the modes of nature.
Faith directed toward spiritual life is in the mode of goodness, faith rooted in fruitive work is in the mode of passion, faith residing in irreligious activities is in the mode of ignorance, but faith in My devotional service is purely transcendental.
Food that is wholesome, pure and obtained without difficulty is in the mode of goodness, food that gives immediate pleasure to the senses is in the mode of passion, and food that is unclean and causes distress is in the mode of ignorance.
Happiness derived from the self is in the mode of goodness, happiness based on sense gratification is in the mode of passion, and happiness based on delusion and degradation is in the mode of ignorance. But that happiness found within Me is transcendental.
A wise sage, free from all material association and unbewildered, should subdue his senses and worship Me. He should conquer the modes of passion and ignorance by engaging himself only with things in the mode of goodness.
Then, being fixed in devotional service, the sage should also conquer the material mode of goodness by indifference toward the modes. Thus pacified within his mind, the spirit soul, freed from the modes of nature, gives up the very cause of his conditioned life and attains Me.
JAI SRILA A.C. BHAKTIVEDANTA SWAMI PRABHUPADA
Mode of goodness is highest in this world. In Daiva Varnashrama, a Brahmana who is kanistha vaishnava is respected.
it is necessary because mind is controlled, senses are controlled, time is used. But we have to go beyond it.
If anyone wants to know the science of God, then he has to keep himself on the modes of goodness
"Therefore if anyone wants to know the science of God, then he has to keep himself on the modes of goodness"
Woman: Doesn't Rāma refer to a man that was born..., I'm not..., in India or somewhere, and Christ was born in Europe? Two different men, but still the same, the same...
Prabhupāda: Yes. The sun is every day born in India, born in Europe, born in America. Does it mean that he's Indian or American or Chinese?
Woman: No, that's not what I mean.
Prabhupāda: Then? Therefore it is like that. When... This is our limited knowledge. We have been taught in that way, that God is great. Just like the sun is great; therefore even the sun is seen in India or in America or China, anywhere, any part of the world, any part of the universe, the sun is one. Nobody can say, "Oh, it is American sun" or "It is Indian sun." So either Jesus Christ or Rāma or Kṛṣṇa, whoever comes from the kingdom of God, they are the same. There is no difference. But the difference is... Just like in your country temperature of sun is less, and in a tropical country the temperature of the sun is very great. Does it mean the sun's temperature is changed? It is according to the reception. The atmosphere of this country is so surcharged that you cannot receive the sunshine properly, but the sunshine distributes its shining everywhere the same. Similarly, according to the country, according to the circumstances, according to the planet, God is manifested differently, but He is not different. You are wrapping your body with some winter clothes. Same time, telegraph in India, oh, they are running fan. Why the temperature is different? Therefore whatever Lord Jesus Christ says or whatever Kṛṣṇa says or what Rāma says, that is in terms of the place, in terms of the circumstances, atmosphere, persons, hearer. There is different. One thing which I try to convince a child is not possible to teach the same thing to his father. Or a child cannot understand what is sex life, but a young man can understand. The same child, when he'll be grown up, he'll know. So you do not think that everyone can understand everything. So Bible is spoken under certain circumstances; Bhagavad-gītā is spoken under certain circumstances. It is the difference of the circumstances. Otherwise, the principle is the same. In the Bible also it is said, "Love God," and Bhagavad-gītā also says, "Love God." There is no difference.
Upendra: Prabhupāda, what is the nature of anger? How is anger...
Prabhupāda: Anger means lust. When you are lusty and your lust is not fulfilled, you become angry. That's all. It is another feature of the lust. Kāma eṣa krodha eṣa rajo-guṇa-samudbhavaḥ. When you are too much influenced with the modes of passion, you become lusty. And when your lust is not fulfilled, then you are angry, next stage. And next stage is that there is bewilderment. And then next stage is praṇaśyati, then you are lost. Therefore one has to control this lust and anger. This controlling means you have to put yourself in the modes of goodness, not in the modes of passion. There are three modes of material nature: modes of ignorance, modes of passion and modes of goodness. Therefore if anyone wants to know the science of God, then he has to keep himself on the modes of goodness. Otherwise he cannot. Therefore we are teaching our students that "You don't do this, you don't do this, you don't do this, you don't do this," because he has to keep himself on the modes of goodness. Otherwise he'll not be able to understand. Kṛṣṇa consciousness cannot be understood on the platform of ignorance and passion. The whole world is under the influence of ignorance and passion. But this method is so simple that if you simply follow the four principles of restriction and chant Hare Kṛṣṇa, you are immediately surpassing all the modes of material nature. So the anger is on the platform of passion. Yes?
BG Chapters 13 - 18
O sinless one, the mode of goodness, being purer than the others, is illuminating, and it frees one from all sinful reactions. Those situated in that mode become conditioned by a sense of happiness and knowledge.
The living entities conditioned by material nature are of various types. One is happy, another is very active, and another is helpless. All these types of psychological manifestations are causes of the entities' conditioned status in nature. How they are differently conditioned is explained in this section of Bhagavad-gītā. The mode of goodness is first considered. The effect of developing the mode of goodness in the material world is that one becomes wiser than those otherwise conditioned. A man in the mode of goodness is not so much affected by material miseries, and he has a sense of advancement in material knowledge. The representative type is the brāhmaṇa, who is supposed to be situated in the mode of goodness. This sense of happiness is due to understanding that, in the mode of goodness, one is more or less free from sinful reactions. Actually, in the Vedic literature it is said that the mode of goodness means greater knowledge and a greater sense of happiness.
The difficulty here is that when a living entity is situated in the mode of goodness he becomes conditioned to feel that he is advanced in knowledge and is better than others. In this way he becomes conditioned. The best examples are the scientist and the philosopher. Each is very proud of his knowledge, and because they generally improve their living conditions, they feel a sort of material happiness. This sense of advanced happiness in conditioned life makes them bound by the mode of goodness of material nature. As such, they are attracted toward working in the mode of goodness, and, as long as they have an attraction for working in that way, they have to take some type of body in the modes of nature. Thus there is no likelihood of liberation, or of being transferred to the spiritual world. Repeatedly one may become a philosopher, a scientist or a poet, and repeatedly become entangled in the same disadvantages of birth and death. But, due to the illusion of the material energy, one thinks that that sort of life is pleasant.
Conversations and Morning Walks
1972 Conversations and Morning Walks
Prabhupāda: Yes, Mṛgāri. "Why you are killing in this way?" "Oh, it is my business. My father taught it." So he was honestly doing that. So feeling of honesty depends on different culture. A thief's culture is different. He thinks stealing is honesty.
Bob: So what is honesty?
Prabhupāda: Yes, that is my question. (laughter) Real honesty is that you should not encroach upon other's property. This is honesty. Just like this is my table. If you want to take it away while going, is that honesty? No. So therefore the simple definition of honesty is that you should not encroach upon other's right. That is honesty.
Bob: So somebody who is honest will be in the mode of goodness. Would that be correct?Prabhupāda: Certainly. Certainly. Because mode of goodness means knowledge. So if you know, if you're well conversant that "This table does not belong to me; it belongs to Swamiji," so you'll not try to take it away. Therefore one must know, be thoroughly well conversant; then he can be honest.
If one is determined he can be blessed by the mode of goodness, and by transcending the mode of goodness he can be situated in pure goodness, which is called the vasudeva state
"if one is determined he can be blessed by the mode of goodness, and by transcending the mode of goodness he can be situated in pure goodness, which is called the vasudeva state"
Bhagavad-gita As It Is
BG Chapters 13 - 18
Sometimes the mode of goodness becomes prominent, defeating the modes of passion and ignorance, O son of Bharata. Sometimes the mode of passion defeats goodness and ignorance, and at other times ignorance defeats goodness and passion. In this way there is always competition for supremacy.
When the mode of passion is prominent, the modes of goodness and ignorance are defeated. When the mode of goodness is prominent, passion and ignorance are defeated. And when the mode of ignorance is prominent, passion and goodness are defeated. This competition is always going on. Therefore, one who is actually intent on advancing in Kṛṣṇa consciousness has to transcend these three modes. The prominence of some certain mode of nature is manifested in one's dealings, in his activities, in eating, etc. All this will be explained in later chapters. But if one wants, he can develop, by practice, the mode of goodness and thus defeat the modes of ignorance and passion. One can similarly develop the mode of passion and defeat goodness and ignorance. Or one can develop the mode of ignorance and defeat goodness and passion. Although there are these three modes of material nature, if one is determined he can be blessed by the mode of goodness, and by transcending the mode of goodness he can be situated in pure goodness, which is called the vasudeva state, a state in which one can understand the science of God. By the manifestation of particular activities, it can be understood in what mode of nature one is situated.
If you place your loving tendency to Vāsudeva, then vāsudeve bhagavati bhakti-yogaḥ. This can be done perfectly by bhakti-yoga, not by any other. There are different yoga systems. Everything is mixed up with little bhakti, but... Just like karma-yoga, jñāna-yoga, dhyāna-yoga, there are different. But the real yoga means loving Vāsudeva, Bhagavān. Therefore Bhagavān says in the Bhagavad-gītā, yogināṁ api sarveṣāṁ (BG 6.47). All other yoga systems there is little tinge of vāsudeva-bhakti, but not cent percent pure. It is mixed. Miśra-bhakti. Miśra-bhakti will not be immediately fruitful. It will take long, long time. Bahūnāṁ janmanām ante jñānavān māṁ prapadyate (BG 7.19). Everything, there is some bhakti-yoga, but if it is not pure, then it will take very, very, very, very long time, bahūnāṁ janmanām. One janma means hundreds of years. We are not talking of any other janma. Even human form of life. Because those who are advanced in spiritual life, there is every possibility for getting next life a human being. Otherwise nobody knows. Those who are ignorant, they do not know. There will be change of body—tathā dehāntara prāptir—that is a fact. But those who are in the sattva-guṇa, they are sure to get next life in the human society. Śucīnāṁ śrīmatāṁ gehe yoga-bhraṣṭo sanjāyate (BG 6.41). This śucīnāṁ, pure brāhmaṇa, and śrīmatāṁ, very rich vaiśya, or kṣatriya. Kings and mercantile community, they are rich, śrīmat. Śrī means opulence, and mat means one who has. Śrīmatām.
So this is a chance that even if you are failure in this life, somehow or other, you get chance next life again human form of life, either in a very nice pure brāhmaṇa family or Vaiṣṇava family. Vaiṣṇava family is better than brāhmaṇa family. (break) ...ringing the karatālas, chanting, dancing, offering obeisances to the Lord, temple atmosphere. Don't think it is ordinary opportunity. It is very great opportunity. From the very beginning of life they are getting impression, bhakti-yoga. Vāsudeve bhagavati bhakti-yoga. These are not going in vain. Even a child is playing karatāla, imitation. Not imitation. He's given the chance. He was previously Vaiṣṇava. Somehow or other, he could not make his life perfect. Therefore he is given again chance. So naturally he has got tendency to play the karatāla, to offer flower here, to offer obeisances. They take pleasure. It is due to previous life, yogas. But it was not perfectly done, so somehow or other they are getting chance from the very beginning of life. It does not mean that if somebody did not get the chance from the very beginning of life he cannot. He can be also.
So..., but the ultimate aim is vāsudeve. Prītir na yāvan mayi vāsudeve. This is the ultimate goal. You have to come to this stage, vāsudeva sarvam iti, fully, firmly convinced that "Vāsudeva is my life. Vāsudeva is everything. Kṛṣṇa is my life." And the highest perfection is visible in the Vṛndāvana atmosphere, especially by the gopīs. Everyone in Vṛndāvana, even the trees and plants, even the grains of sand, everyone is attached to Kṛṣṇa. That is Vṛndāvana. So not all of a sudden we can get that highest stage of life of Vṛndāvana attachment, but still, wherever we stay, if we practice this bhakti-yoga, as we are preaching... It is becoming successful. People are taking. Those who were so-called mlecchas and yavanas, they are also taking to Vāsudeva. Their love for Kṛṣṇa is increasing. That is natural. It is said in the Caitanya-caritāmṛta, nitya siddha kṛṣṇa bhakti. Nitya siddha. Just like I am, or you are, we are eternal. Nityo śāśvato 'yam na hanyate hanyamāne śarīre (BG 2.20). We are not destroyed by the destruction of the body. We remain, continue to remain. Similarly, our devotion to Kṛṣṇa continues. It is simply covered. Avidyayātmāny upādhiyamāne. Avidya. This is avidya. We forget Kṛṣṇa, that is avidya. And as soon as we take Kṛṣṇa as our life and soul, that is vidya. You can do. Anyone can do very easily. Kṛṣṇa says, therefore, sarva dharmān parityajya mam ekam śaraṇaṁ (BG 18.66). Why? Any other so-called religious system, that is avidya—will keep you in ignorance. There is no light. And the Vedic injunction is that "Don't keep yourself in the darkness of ignorance." Tamasi mā jyoti gamaḥ.
That jyotiḥ means to love Kṛṣṇa. And loving affairs of Kṛṣṇa is in the spiritual world. That is jyotiḥ, jyotirmāyā dhāma, self-effulgent. Yasya prabhā prabhavato jagad-aṇḍa-koti (Bs. 5.40). There is no darkness. Just like in the sun there is no question of darkness. The examples are here. We can understand what is jyotiḥ. We can see that there is no darkness in the sun planet. It is all glowing effulgence. Similarly, in the spiritual world there is no ignorance. Everyone is śuddha-sattva. Not only sattva-guṇa, but śuddha-sattva. Sattvaṁ viśuddhaṁ vāsudeva-śabditaḥ. Here, in this material world, there are three qualities, sattva-guṇa, rajo-guṇa, tamo-guṇa. So none of these guṇas are pure. There is a mixture. And because there is mixture, therefore we see so many varieties. But we have to come to the platform of sattva-guṇa. And that process is hearing. This is the best process. Śṛṇvatāṁ sva-kathāḥ kṛṣṇaḥ puṇya-śravaṇa-kīrtanaḥ (SB 1.2.17). If you hear regularly Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam... We are therefore stressing: "Always hear, always read, always hear." Nityaṁ bhāgavata-sevayā (SB 1.2.18). Nitya. If you can constantly, twenty-four hours, if you hear and chant Hear means somebody chants or you chant yourself or hear, or some of your colleague may chant, you hear. Or he may hear, you may chant. This process must go on. This is śrāvaṇaṁ kīrtanaṁ viṣṇoḥ. Viṣṇoḥ (SB 7.5.23). That is Bhāgavata. Not any other nonsense talks, gossiping. Simply hear and chant. Then śṛṇvatāṁ sva-kathāḥ kṛṣṇa. If you seriously hear and chant, seriously—"Yes, this life I shall engage only for increasing my love of Vāsudeva"—if you are determined, it can be done. There is no difficulty. And as soon as you do this, you increase fully your love for Vasudeva, then there is no more chance of contacting material body.
1975 Conversations and Morning Walks
Mādhavānanda: It's our duty in society to show everyone how to work for Kṛṣṇa and become happy in life.
Prabhupāda: That is yajña. To work for Kṛṣṇa means yajña. Yajñarthe karma: "For yajña, performing yajña, one has to work." To work for Kṛṣṇa means yajña. That is performance of yajña. (break) ...Communistic idea is borrowing this idea from... But because they are imperfect, they have made center, state. And because it is imperfect, it is not successful. They have made center the state. (break) Tamo-guṇa means laziness and sleep. The śūdras, they are in laziness and sleep. So if they have got something to eat, they will not work. Laziness. Or eat more and sleep. This is tamo-guṇa. And rajo-guṇa means they are working for sense gratification. That is also useless. Tamo-guṇa is laziness and sleeping, and rajo-guṇa means working foolishly or for sense gratification. And sattva-guṇa means they know how to work. And therefore above this sattva-guṇa they become devotee, work for Kṛṣṇa. So without working for Kṛṣṇa, everyone is under the spell of these modes of material nature. And there is no training how to work for Kṛṣṇa. That is the defect of modern civilization.
Ādi-keśava: Sometimes people criticize us, saying we are teaching everyone how to do nothing, that we are teaching them about God, but how are we going to teach anyone to practically survive in the world? Sometimes they say like that, that we don't have any practical instruction as well.
Prabhupāda: Practical? What is not practical? We are not eating? We are not sleeping?
Ādi-keśava: Yes, they are saying, "Oh, when will you learn to do a trade? When will you learn to perform business, or when will you learn to become a doctor, if you are always studying..."
Prabhupāda: But you are doctor already. Why shall I become doctor? You serve me. We serve you by giving you Kṛṣṇa consciousness; you serve me as a doctor. What is the wrong there? Parasparārtham. I am for you; you are for me. Division of labor, that is accepted universally. So ask them, "Do you think that everyone should become doctor? Then where is the patient?" Eh? Everything is required. Similarly, you require our help also. It is cooperation. You know medical science; we know spiritual science. So let us exchange and be happy. Why you are envious of us? Why there is division in the body—head, arms, legs, belly? Why not everything head or everything leg? Why there is divided? That is nature. It is required. Why this road is neglected?
Mādhavānanda: It's mismanagement.
Ādi-keśava: Even they are saying that, that we don't know how to, we're not teaching anything practical.
Ādi-keśava: Even sometimes they are saying we're not teaching anything practical.
Prabhupāda: What does he mean by practical?
Ādi-keśava: Practical? They're thinking we don't know how to operate in the material world.
Ādi-keśava: They're thinking we don't know how to manage things.
Prabhupāda: We are not managing things? Hm? Brahmānanda? You are not managing?
Brahmānanda: We manage all day long. (laughing)
Ādi-keśava: Even my father is a big businessman. He said to me, "Who is this person that taught you to manage like this?" He said, "I wish I could get him to teach all my men."
Prabhupāda: So why don't you ask your father to join for management? Eh?
The referred websites just cleared my conceptions about three modes of nature. A lot Thanks for that.
But One question from the "Sri Caitanya-caritamrta Lectures" that states "Vaisya means passion and ignorance, k?atriya means passion, and brahma?a means goodness" from the links that you have referred,
Krsna knows that Khatriya is mode of Passion, So Arjuna as a Khatriya is mode of passion, Then why Krsna instructed Him to fight (Fight is the passion for Ksatriya)? By this Arjuna will again be under mode of passion?
Why Krsna did not instruct Arjuna not to fight? rather transcend the mode of goodness by remembering and serving ME.
my humble obeisances Prabhu,
All glories to Srila Prabhupada!
We sleep, it is in the mode of ignorance but our intention is to sleep so that we give rest to the body and next day serve to Krishna being stronger.
We give birth to child so it is in the mode of passion but if we educate child to be Krishna Conscious then it is above all gunas.
So all these gunas can be and should be used in the service of Krishna that means to rise up from all gunas.
We lived for so many life times because of that we have many samskaras and we have desire to act according to those samskaras because of that Krishna says act according to Your nature but do that for Me and that will be a devotional service.
Soul can not live without action. It is dynamic. Arjuna was a kshatriya by his nature so he should act according to his own nature. If he was a brahmana then Krishna would have told him to act according to brahmanical culture.
But He told that Arjuna, you have desire to fight even if you go to forest and try to live life of a brahmana you will find someone to fight with, why? Because it is in your nature.
So this nature we can not overcome but using it in Krishna's service we can become free from all material desires.
Vaishya in the mode of ignorance and passion means in his duty he has to lie. While selling something and to earn something one should lie. So that is in the mode of ignorance. But without that Vaishya can not survive so he has to do it.
Kshatriya's passion means he has to become angry, aggressive, act ...so that is passion.
But Brahmana should not lie, but be honest so that is mode of goodness.
It's cleared now.