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Hare Krishna, Mataji/Prabhuji's  PAMHO,

Can anyone explain to me in detail about these sloka from bhagavat gita.

sri-bhagavan uvaca
urdhva-mulam adhah-sakham
asvattham prahur avyayam
chandamsi yasya parnani
yas tam veda sa veda-vit

"This tree, being the reflection of the real tree, is an exact replica. Everything is there in the spiritual world. The impersonalists take Brahma to be the root of this material tree, and from the root, according to sankhya philosophy, come prakrti, purusa, then the three gunas, then the five gross elements (panca-mahabhuta), then the ten senses (dasendriya), mind, etc. In this way they divide up the whole material world. If Brahma is the center of all manifestations, then this material world is a manifestation of the center by 180 degrees, and the other 180 degrees constitute the spiritual world. The material world is the perverted reflection, so the spiritual world must have the same variegatedness, but in reality. The prakrti is the external energy of the Supreme Lord, and the purusa is the Supreme Lord Himself, and that is explained in Bhagavad-gita. Since this manifestation is material, it is temporary"

Please explain in detail what does this paragraph mean which is given in the purport? What is sankhya philosophy?

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Hare Krsna
Thank you for giving me the opportunity to answer this question although I cannot answer it properly!
This fifteenth chapter teaches us detachment from this world. This world is compared to the reflection of the real tree of the spiritual world, that is straight, the reflection is inverted.
Sankhya philosophy is the analytical study of all the elements of the universe(the mind, intelligence, false ego, the five great elements, the ten senses etc.) which appear manifested in the tree of the Universe(which is a reflection of the real tree as mentioned).
Once we study this tree, from where it extends, we can cut of our relationship with it, by surrendering to the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
Also one who knows this tree is a Veda-vit or the knower of the Vedas since the leaves of this tree represent the Vedic Hymns.
Hari Bol!

Hare Krishna,

I will try to explain this but it is most difficult part of entire Gita ( MAY KRISHNA HELP ME).  Lord is so great He explained whole Veda Saar ( summary) in this chapter. This chapter is called Purushottam yoga.  If you are not able to read the entire Gita also this particular chapter if you can thoroughly understand and follow it ( implement it) means you are an expert in Vedas.

"yas tam veda sa veda-vit.  < as told by Lord. The one who knows completely about this Inverted Asthwatha vriksha ( Banyan tree) is called an expert in Vedas or Veda- Vit.

Lord explained in this chapter entire Veda summary , not only Vedas even summary of Upanishads also in just 20 verses.  To understand this is not so easy as it seems. Bhagwan explains it so neatly in just 1 verse.. It shows how intelligent is His words. How guhayatam.( secretive is the message). IN the last verse of this chapter.. He Uses the word "'Guhyatam''..( highest secret).. of all Shastras.

'''iti guhyatamaṁ śhāstram idam"

Generally speaking any tree has root below and trunk and branches and leaves above.  Here this banayan tree which is  metaphorically representing  the material world is  an inverted image of the spiritual world.  Why did Lord use this metaphor to explain material world???  HDG Srila Prabhupada gives in the purport that  If the image of the tree is inverted where can u find an inverted tree in this world??  only in some mirror reflection.  Where do trees stand..>> near the bank of the river. The reflection of the tree falls as an inverted image in the river. Right? reflection is not real also. this point should be clear. It is just a reflection of the real tree. so it is unreal. so is the material world ( represented by this reflection also unreal).

One more important thing Lord is saying with this metaphorical reference is the this tree is ashwatha vriksha ( banyan tree).. the name "Ashwatha" in sanskrit means that which is not going to be tomorrow. It is ever changing. Like the river is flowing it is not still. New water comes in and waves move the water ahead but the reflection is there. So you can say that the tree is imperishable but at the same time it is perished also. just like the moving water. Stream is always there but the same water is not there. You can say the same for this banyan tree also. The tree wont die it is imperishable but at the same time is perishable.. Like one tree can give rise to a fruit and fruit gives rise to many seeds and seeds keep germinating and it is always there. So this is metaphor used by Lord to explain the material nature of life is very apt. Ashwatha means that which is is not going to be tomorrow.. ever changing.. but it remains imperishable.

In one line Lord told so much..about this real tree, its reflection, inverted image.. means some water is there..and that the reflection is unreal and perishable at the same time imperishable. This is the expertness of Lord Krishna. " alpa aksharam.. artham anantam"  means  He used only few words to explain a very big meaning.

Now If u see in our family tree chart or a organisation chart also we find this inverted tree.  The person who started the Organisation is only one. from him came out many subordinates who work for Him directly and indirectly. Lord gave the authority of creation to Bramha ji and Brahma ji inturn created beings. Let us imagine that the point where the two tree..

The real tree and the reflected inverted tree meeting Is the Brahmaji's position.  If you draw a Straight line connecting the two trees...Bramha ji is in the center at the meeting point of the two trees. 

In the purport Srila Prabhupada says--->" If Brahma is the center of all manifestations, then this material world is a manifestation of the center by 180 degrees, and the other 180 degrees constitute the spiritual world".  

It means at 180 degree towards the river side there is material world and at 180 degree towards the Urdhva ( above) is the real tree ( spiritual world). center point is the position of bramha ji.

Impersonalists would stop near the bramha ji ( bramhan efflugence) and say he is only the cause of all causes. Thinking he is only in the roots.

But.. even brahmaji took his origin from the Lord itself. So high above brahma ji also there is one superior reality or Supreme Godhead.

If we trace back our roots we can reach upto the Bramha ji. who is the creator of all beings.  Here we must also understand that braham ji resides in Satya loka. There are total 14 worlds .7 below and 7 above Bhuloka.  our bhooloka is representing the tree trunk and whose branches are nourished by the 3 gunas ( Satva, Rajas and tamo gunas). and the leaves of the tree represent the vedas which prescribe 4 goals for humans ( Dharma( religion), artha( economic development), Kama( sense gratification and Moksha( liberation).. these are the 4 purusharthas. and these are represented by leaves and the small twigs and branches and shoots are sense objects. and the tree is anchored to the ground by prop roots for support by...lust, anger, greed, and karma fala ( fruits of the karma) for the tree is growing in the desire waters.

The river water is filled with our desires and this desires are root cause of the tree flourishing. If you are able to cut the attachments and anchorages ( karma bandhanas and maya and moha). You can be liberated and raise above other wise you may be travelling up and down in the material world. When you do some punya karma you may get to swarga loka and again may come back to bhuloka. If you do some papa karma you may go fall even more down to the patala loka also.  But you are all the time travelling up and down this inverted tree. unable to cut the anchorages. 

To detach and cut the bondages /anchorages you need a strong sharp sword of vairagya.

And why is this desire tree created ? it is becoz we fallen souls wanted to separately enjoy away from Lord so Lord created this perverted inverted reflection of the Spiritual world for us., to fulfill our desires.. Our duty is to cut these karma bandhanas the anchorages of the tree ( maya and moha and karma fal cycle) with a sword of dispassion and cross this river filled with desires to reach Lord.

Prakruti and purusha ( Lord and his external energy) have created this virtual world for the fallen souls.

As explained in the purport "The material world is the perverted reflection, so the spiritual world must have the same variegatedness, but in reality. The prakrti is the external energy of the Supreme Lord, and the purusa is the Supreme Lord Himself, and that is explained in Bhagavad-gita. Since this manifestation is material, it is temporary."

According to sankhya philosophy - , Maha Vishnu ( Purusha) glances at Material Nature ( Prakruti), thus agitating her to begin expanding the material elements. Material elements include, Mahatattva, the false ego, intellect, mind, 3 gunas, 5 gross elements ( panchabhootas), 5 karma indriyas, 5 gyan indriyas. 

Viraja river is the river that divides material world from spiritual world.

CC Madhya 19.153 Translation:--

“As one waters the bhakti-latā-bīja, the seed sprouts, and the creeper gradually grows to the point where it penetrates the walls of this universe and goes beyond the Virajā River, lying between the spiritual world and the material world. It attains brahma-loka, the Brahman effulgence, and penetrating through that stratum, it reaches the spiritual sky and the spiritual planet Goloka Vṛndāvana.

Banyan tree Plate35

This is so nice picture and this verse can be easily understood by just looking at it.

Hare Krishna!!!

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