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1) All the planets in the universe are revolving with a pivot at Dhruva..like a chandelier, this is the structure of the universe. And these planets are divided in to 14 planetary systems. Moon, saturn (Shani) are certainly in the higher planetary systems. I will find out about the others. Jupiter is called Guru, Mars is mangala, venus is shukra. Some of the planets are named after the sages.
2) In vedic scriptures, it is said sun is nearer than the moon to the earth. This is because Vedic scriptures measure the distance based on the planetary system, i.e bhumandala for us. The sun lies between bhuloka and bhurloka, the moon belongs to bhurloka. So according to the vertical distance calculations, sun is nearer to the moon. The earth is present in jambudvipa which is in the middle of the bhumandala. Also moon is present almost in the centre of bhurloka system.
The sun is said to travel on a chariot having one wheel on manasottara mountain (in Pushkara dvipa) and another pivoting meru mountain. So Sun appears farther from our viewpoint.
I could have explained with a diagram but cannot draw here. You can go through the book "Mysteries of the sacred universe" by Richard L thompson (HG Sadaputa Pr).
3) Solar eclipse means Rahu covers the sun. There's a further explanation which says rahu eats away the sun during that time. you can refer to the above book for further info.
Hare Krishna dear Devotees, please accept my humble obeisances! all glories to Srila Prabhupada!
yes, Deepak Prabhu is right. There are main Demigods like
Moon God - Chandra the ruler of Moon Planet,
Sun God - Surya - the ruler of Sun Planet,
Spiritual Master of Demigods Brihaspati who is the ruler of Jupiter,
Spiritual Master of Asuras - Shukracharya who is the ruler of Venus,
The ruler of Mercury is the son of Brihaspati's wife and Moon God.
The ruler of Mars Planet is also some one's son (i forgot)
Saturn Planet is ruled by Shani Dev.
Rahu and Ketu are not visible.
Scientists even can not count their hair on their heads, so why should we believe to them??? Most of them smoke cigarettes, drink alcohol, do some other things ...it means they do not even happy in life. they do not know how to become happy. they are themselves are not Atmaramas - self satisfied,
SO WHY SHOULD I BELIEVE TO THEM RATHER THEN TO REAL ATMARAMA WHO IS KRISHNA???
I had asked same question to someone when I was a kid and his answer was that scientific names are copied from scriptures. This is mayavadi's vision of world. Like there is one Sankhya but Kapil took the name and confused people (in case you think it is true Sankhya). And then Kanva and Kanad came in.
Those are different plane.