Internal potencies of Krishna

It is said that among all internal potencies of Radha-Krishna, three of them are prime. They are -

.1) Samvit

.2) Sandhini

.3) Hladini (pleasure potency)

of these Hladini is manifested from Krishna as Radha. (i.e) Krishna manifests his Hladini potency separately as Radha and thus engages in spiritual pleasure-pastimes with her.

How are the other 2 potencies manifested?

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  • Volunteer

    In every gross body, there is an individual soul. You and I got our separate individual souls. And that  each individual soul is atomic in size is confirmed in Shvetashvatara Upanishad (5.9) -balagra-shata-bhagasya (When the upper point of a hair is divided into one hundred parts and again each of such parts is further divided into one hundred parts, each such part is the measurement of the dimension of the jiva soul)

  • ll Hari Om ll my pranAms to Bhagavan and the Bhagavathas !

    Thanks Yash and Gaurab prabhujis for your kind replies.

    Gaurab prabhuji, in your reply, I'm reading that the size of a Jiva is 1/10000 of the tip of hair of the body. But in a single body, only one Jiva resides? So, is it that there are as many jivas as there are living bodies (including gross, subtle and causal bodies)?

    Sri Krishna sharanamaham prapadhyE,


  • Volunteer

    Sri Bhagavân has three Shaktis
    “Whoever knows Sri Krishna’s swarup and three Shaktis has no doubt about Him.” – (C.C.)
    Krishna is an absolute and almighty Tattva. Now we are analyzing His strength. We can understand Him better if we know His potency. Sri Bhagavan has three principal Shaktis.
    “These three Shaktis are as follows –
    1. Chit-shakti – We also call it ‘swarup-shakti’. It is ‘antarangâ’ or internal. It has infinite opulence and the divine realms such as the countless Vaikunthas are made of this Shakti.
    2. Mâyâ-shakti – It is the ‘bahirangâ’ or external Shakti. The material world comprising of innumerable universes is made up of this Shakti.
    3. Jiv-shakti – It is also called ‘tatasthâ-shakti’. It is present in all the living beings.
    These three Shaktis further consist of infinite Shaktis.”
    - (C.C.)

    (Internal potency)
    “We hear about the Shakti of the Divine Being”
    - (Shwetâshwatar Upanishad)
    This Shakti is nothing but the ‘chit-shakti’ or the ‘Antarangâ shakti’. This Shakti is the closest to Sri Bhagavan. This is why we call it ‘internal’. It is self-manifesting and is the opposite of non-conscious. Hence, it is ‘consciousness’ or ‘chit-shakti’ (‘chit’ means conscious). It is present in Supreme Being’s swarup. Therefore, we also call it ‘swarup-shakti’. It is greater than the other two Shaktis in nature and glory. Therefore, it is ‘Parâ-shakti’ or ‘supreme shakti’. Thus, it has the following names –
    • Antarangâ-shakti
    • Chit-shakti
    • Swarup-shakti
    • Parâ-shakti
    “Sri Krishna is sat-chit-ânanda. His chit-shakti takes three forms -
    1. Sandhini – when the swarup-shakti manifests the property ‘sat’, we call it ‘sandhini’.
    2. Samvit – When the swarup-shakti conveys knowledge or consciousness, it is expressing itself as ‘samvit’.
    3. Hlâdini – when the swarup-shakti expresses bliss, we call it ‘hlâdini’.” – (C.C.)
    Although Sri Bhagavân is ‘sat’ personified, He exists and makes others existent using the sandhini-shakti. Sri Bhagavân is the embodiment of knowledge. Yet He uses the samvit-shakti to know Himself and make others know about Him. Sri Bhagavan is Bliss, yet He relishes joy using Hlâdini-shakti and makes others relish too. Just as we cannot separate Sri Bhagavân’s sat, chit and ânanda, sandhini, samvit and hlâdini too are intermingled with each other.
    We have stated that chit-shakti is self-manifested. When the sun rises, it shows itself and illuminates other substances. Similarly, chit-shakti manifests itself as well as other objects. It is a conglomeration of sandhini, samvit and hlâdini. Chit-shakti has a property called ‘vishuddha-satva’ (= especially pure goodness). Sri Bhagavan uses this property of His swarup-shakti while appearing. All three – hlâdini, sandhini and samvit – are present together in vishuddha-satva. However sometimes they manifest themselves in equal amounts and sometimes in different proportions. ‘Vishuddha-satva’ gains special names depending on the extent of hlâdini, samvit and sandhini expressed in it. Some of them are as follows –
    • Âdhâr-shakti – When sandhini-shakti expresses itself to a large degree, then ‘vishuddha-satva’ is called ‘âdhâr-shakti’. Sri Bhagavan manifests His abode using this power.
    “When sandhini-shakti is dominant we call it as ‘shuddha-satva’ (not to be confused with vishuddha-satva). Sri Bhagavan’s power rests on this. His parents, abode, home, bed etc are made up of shuddha-satva.” – (C.C.)
    • Âtma-vidya – When samvit-shakti makes up the major portion of vishuddha-satva, we call it ‘âtma-vidyâ.’ It has two forms – (a) knowledge (b) harbinger of knowledge.
    It gives knowledge to the worshiper.
    “The function of samvit is to give knowledge about Sri Krishna’s divinity and all sorts of spiritual awareness.”
    – (C.C.)
    • Guhya-vidyâ – When hlâdini is dominant in vishuddha-satva, it is called ‘guhya-vidya’ (secret knowledge). It has two forms – (a) devotion (b) harbinger of devotion.
    It gives loving devotion or ‘prem-bhakti’ to a devotee.
    “When we condense Hlâdini we get ‘prem’. It is made up of blissful and conscious (or divine) ras”. – (C.C.)

    • Murti – When sandhini, samvit and hlâdini manifest in equal amounts in vishuddha-satva we call it as ‘murti’. Sri Bhagavan’s Holy Form manifests due to this Shakti.

    (External potency)
    Sri Bhagavân has described His external Mâyâ-shakti to Brahmâji with His own Holy mouth –
    “I am the only object worth accomplishing. When one cannot understand this and realizes something else, it is ‘mâyâ’. Maya cannot exist on its own - just like a reflection or darkness.” - (S.B.2.9.3)
    Mâyâ’s first characteristic is that, when we do not realize Sri Bhagavân, we appreciate Mâyâ. We do not turn towards Him and in stead consider Mâyâ true. So let us understand that those who have not realized Sri Bhagavân, or have turned away from Him are the ones who consider their body and everything related to the body as real. They do not comprehend that these substances are all Mâyâ. It naturally follows that if we realize Sri Bhagavân we will not feel the effect of Mâyâ. We will know that Mâyâ’s activities are temporary and material pleasure will never tempt us.
    Sri Bhagavân has stated another characteristic of Mâyâ – “it cannot exist on its own”. This means that Mâyâ cannot exist without Sri Bhagavân. It is true that when we do not experience Sri Bhagavân, we fall into the clutches of Mâyâ. However, it is also true that Sri Bhagavân is the source of Mâyâ. Power (Shakti) has to come from a powerful person (Shaktimân). There is and cannot be any power other than Sri Bhagavân (since He is almighty). So this means that Mâyâ also comes from Him. Nevertheless, we should also know that Mâyâ is His external potency and does not exist within Him. It is a power working in the material world (outside the divine empire).
    Sri Bhagavân has explained Mâyâ further with two examples – “just like (a) reflection and (b) darkness”. We can see the reflection of the sun in a water body. The sun’s reflection is very far from the sun and it is in the world. Similarly, Mâyâ occurs outside the divine realm. Sri Bhagavân’s internal potency works in His transcendental world while Mâyâ manifests itself in the material world.
    We may ask – “Power exists within the powerful person. When Mâyâ is present so far from the Supreme Being then how can you call it His Shakti?” The answer is – A powerful person the source of power. It cannot survive without him. We cannot see the sun’s reflection in the  absence of the sun. Therefore, although Mâyâ exists far from the Supreme Being He is its source.”

    Another example – “like darkness”. If we stare long enough at the sun’s reflection, its glare blinds us and we begin to see darkness. This darkness is present within us and not in the sun. However, this darkness arises out of the sun. We experience it because of the sun. Likewise, although the Supreme Being is the source of Mâyâ it exists outside Him. Sri Jiva Goswâmipâd says, “External Mâyâ is of two types – (a) Jiva-mâyâ (b) Guna-mâyâ.
    (a) Jiva-mâyâ – When we stare at the sun’s reflection in a water body, its glare blinds us. Similarly, the Mâyâ that covers our intelligence is called ‘Jiva-mâyâ’. It has two functions –
    • To cover – Mâyâ covers our intelligence and does not allow us to know our swarup. It prevents us from learning that we are originally transcendental beings.
    • To distract – Mâyâ distracts us from the lotus feet of Sri Bhagavân and instead throws our mind into non-conscious matter. It makes us feel that we are this body and makes our mind wander in objects of sense gratification.
    (b) Guna-mâyâ - As we continue to look intently at the reflection of the sun, the darkness assumes many shapes. Similarly, Mâyâ presents three gunas – satvah, rajah, tamah - in various shapes to us.
    “The material world is not a source at all. Nature is without any consciousness. Sri Krishna takes mercy and implants His Shakti in it. When a piece of iron encounters fire, the fire transmits its quality to the iron (that is the iron becomes red hot like the fire). Similarly due to His Shakti, Nature assumes some attributes or gunas.” – (C.C.)
    Tatasthâ Jiva-shakti
    (The Shakti inside living beings)
    The Shâstras prove that the living being is essentially Sri Bhagavân’s Shakti. Sri Vishnu Purân says –
    “We call Vishnu-shakti or Swarup-shakti as divine power. There is another Shakti called Jiva-shakti. There is a third power that results in ignorance (external Mâyâ-shakti).”
    We also find in Sri Gitâ –

    “Sri Krishna told Arjun – O mighty-armed hero, I have an excellent power called Jiva-shakti which is different from Mâyâ-shakti. This excellent power is holding the world.”
    “The living entity is Shakti (Power) while Sri Krishna is the Shaktimân (powerful person). The scriptures such as Sri Gitâ and Vishnu Purân prove this.” – (C.C.)
    This Jiva-shakti belongs neither to Swarup-shakti nor to Mâyâ-shakti. We call it ‘tatasthâ’ – something that lies midway between the two. Sri Bhagavân is almighty conscious being while the Jiva-shakti is atom-like in comparison. Shrutis mention that – the Jiva is as small as the ten thousandth part of the tip of a hair. There are countless jivas. We can classify them into two groups –
    “(a) Nitya-mukta (eternally free) – A class of living beings are turned towards Sri Bhagavân and have divine knowledge since time infinite. They are ‘Nitya-mukta’.
    (b) Nitya-baddha (eternally bound) – This group has forgotten Sri Bhagavân since eternity and is turned away from Him.”
    – (Paramâtma-Sandarbha)
    Sriman-Mahâprabhu has told in Sanâtan-shikshâ –
    “Jivas are of two types – (a) eternally free and (b) eternally bound to the material world. Those who are eternally free turn toward Sri Krishna’s feet forever. They are His associates and enjoy the pleasure of serving Him. The eternally bound are the ones who have turned away from Him since infinity. They suffer hellish pains in the material world.”
    – (C.C.)

    • An excellent source of knowledge described with clarity . Thanks for sharing.

  • it is a very nice question prabhu, very technical and rare of itz kinds..

    i would ask you to kindly read the BHAKTI-RASAMRIT-SINDHU (necter of devotion) by sripada Rupa goswami.

    to get your answer. i know the answer but would not want to stop your reading process of answering.

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