Vijayesh Khajuria's Posts (5)

 This post is the most valuable piece on Surya Namaskar you will find in any language other that Sanskrit. Thousands of pretenders have flooded book store shelves and the Internet with "ready made" Surya namaskar takes-- all bull. First of all SURYA NAMASKAR is not a physical exercise. It is something much more profound, which needs deep understanding of Sanskrit Vedic literature and Sanatana Dharma. It is a complete Sadhana, inclusive of Yogasana ( exercise ) , Mantra ( sound longitudinal waves ) , Pranayama ( breathing ) and Chakra meditation ( scalar energy vortex transceiver ) . Surya Namaskar was devised as Yoga 7000 years ago, to facilitate LYMPH DRAINAGE in an amazing manner. This was properly understood by modern science only 70 years go. Our lymphatic system has vessels just like our circulatory system, but does not have a pump (whereas the circulatory system has the heart). In order to clear the “lymph” (the clear extracellular fluid that is collected by the lyphatic vessels and filtered by the lymph nodes), the lymphatic system must be pumped manually. The lymph movement relys on contraction of smooth muscle tissue lining the walls of lymph vessels (peristalsis). Movement of skeletal muscles is also important for driving lymph along the systems network of vessels to lymph nodes and from these to lymph ducts where the lymph tissue joins cardiovascular circulation. Women who do Surya Namaskar do NOT get breast cancer. Surya Namaskar resonates the Pineal gland and DNA-- to speed up your chakras, and enlarge your aura-- I will get to the technical points later., I learnt Surya Namaskar at the age of 7, taught to me by the Kalari gurikkal. Many years later, at my school we did Surya Namaskar in a group. It was compulsory.  Now let me introduce breathing. Breathing does magic . It must be started and stopped at the right time. You must be AWARE of the breathing process. Basically, inhale when stretching and exhale when bending.  Now let me introduce the sound MANTRAS in Sanskrit, the oldest language of this planet, which originated from a 12 strand DNA of a Maharishi. The 12 Names of Surya - the Sun 1) Om Maitreya nam-ah (The friend of all) 2) Om Ravaye nam-ah (Praised by all) 3) Om Suryaya nam-ah (The guide of all) 4) Om Bhanave nam-ah (The bestower of beauty) 5) Om Khagaya nam-ah (Stimulator of the senses) 6) Om Pushne nam-ah (The nourisher of all) 7) Om Hiranyagarbhaya nam-ah (The creator) 8) Om Marichaye nam-ah (Destroyer of disease) 9) Om Adityaya nam-ah (The inspirer) 10) Om Savitre nam-ah (The purifier) 11) Om Arkaya nam-ah (The radiant) 12) Om Bhaskaraya nam-ah (The illuminator) Pose 1 (and 12): Promotes balance, stimulates the respiratory system, exercises shoulder, back and neck muscles Pose 2 (and 11): Promotes balance, promotes digestion, exercises arms and shoulder muscles, tones the spine, promotes flexibility in back and hips Pose 3 (and 10): Promotes blood circulation, tones abdominal tracts, stretches back and leg muscles, stimulates spinal nerves, stimulates lymphatic system Pose 4 (and 9): Exercises spine, strengthens hand and wrist muscles Pose 5 (and 8): Stimulates blood circulation, strengthens the heart, strengthens wrist and arm muscles, relieves neck and shoulder tension Pose 6: Strengthens leg and arm muscles, increases flexibility in neck and shoulders, stretches arms, shoulder, neck and back muscles, exercises back muscles, releases tension in neck and shoulder Pose 7: Stimulates circulation to abdominal organs, tones digestive tract, stretches upper and lower body, promotes flexibility in the back, stimulates nerves in spine Poses 8 through 12 are essentially repetitions of poses 5 through 1, respectively. The health benefits of each are similar to their corresponding poses. During the second set, start off with the other leg. Proforma: Posture / Asana / Chakra / Seed First Posture – Namaskarasana/ Anahata/ OM hram Second Posture – Parvatasana/ Vishuddhi/ OM hrim Third Posture – Namaskara Hastapadasana/ Swadhistana/ OM hram Fourth Posture – Ekapada Prasaranasana/ Ajna/ OM hraim Fifth Posture – Bhudharasana/ Vishhuddi/ OM hraum Sixth Posture – Ashthanga Pranipatasana/ Manipura/ OM hrah Seventh Position – Bhujangasana/ Swadhistana/ OM hram Eighth Posture – Bhudharasana/ Vishuddhi/ OM hrim Ninth Posture – Ekapada Prasaranasana/ Ajna/ OM hrum Tenth Posture – Namaskara Hastapadasana/ Swadhistana/ OM hraim Eleventh Posture – Parvatasana/ Vishuddhi/ OM hraum Twelfth Posture – Namaskarasana/ Anahata/ OM hrah Suryanamaskar is a chiropractic exercise, which keeps your spine flexible and aligned. This keeps you organic chemical medicine factory controlled by your brain in good cheer, without releasing those harmful anti-pain chemicals, which has side effects --caused by lower back pain , sciatica etc. Chakras are focal points where psychic forces and bodily functions interact with each other. They are transceivers of SCALAR energy. Scalar waves operate in a non-linear time dimension which is hyperspace, at any speed from zero to infinity, as they are not limited to the speed of light. When you develop cosmic consciousness, the chakras vortex will extend further from his body. These chakras cannot be seen by the sight sense of the common man. Each of these 7 chakras are associated with a specific colour, organ, gland, mantra and frequency. Chakras can send out information carrying soliton waves, which do not attenuate. The Indian sage has exploded into a space of consciousness in which inner awareness is spontaneous. Cosmic consciousness is an intellectual enlightenment or illumination, an indescribable state of moral and intellectual elevation, a feeling of amazing bliss. Gazing at the sun or stars is an enlightening practice that fills up the soul. The real nervous system operates by means of synaptic messages. The virtual one operates by means of the quantum effect of tunneling (particles passing through an energy barrier that classically they should not be able to climb). The real one is driven by classical laws, the virtual one by quantum laws. Consciousness is therefore driven by quantum laws. Remember, chakras dictate all physical, mental, emotional and spiritual processes that take place in your body. Every chakra is a transmitter cum receiver antenna. As per Vedanta we are essentially holographic energy beings existing in a state of resonance with the scalar field of the cosmos Pineal gland is literally the third eye. The great Himalayan masters did Surya yog by gazing at the rising sun with a silver coin placed in between the eyebrows on the forehead . The solar wind at dawn, charging the earth’s magnetic field, stimulates the pineal gland. This is the best time to meditate , chant and sun gaze. At dawn, the negatively charged pineal and the positively charged pituitary combine their essences to create a "light in the head". Pranayama floods the Pineal gland with oxygen, to make it resonate. The reddish grey pineal gland is located in the geometric center of the brain. The nerves that serve the pineal gland don't originate in the brain but in the sympathetic nervous system. This gland can be activated by activated by sunlight, and also by sound resonance. It controls the various biorhythms of the body. It can discern negative energies, based on perception of vibrating energies around you. When the pineal gland does not receive sunlight, it secretes Melatonin, which induces sleep, increases blood sugar, craze for food, leading to obesity, fears and anxiety.The pineal gland is a photosensitive organ and thus an important timekeeper for the human body. The pineal gland produces PINOLINE, ( 6-methoxy-tetra-dydro-beta carboline, or 6-MeO-THBC ) . Pinoline also resonates with the very pulse of life 7.83 Hertz, the pulse the DNA uses to replicate, and which has been measured to be emitted from the brains and hands of all successful healers, regardless of belief or faith. Pinoline enables the threshold levels of DMT to become active in the brain . DMT with Pinoline increases brain activation multi fold. Pineal activation awakens normally latent neural pathways. Nerve fibers leave the pineal and make synaptic connections with other brain sites through traditional nerve-to-nerve connections, not just through endocrine secretions. EASTERN VEDIC RISHIS MYSTICS HAD THE ABILITY TO GO ON EITHER SIDE OF THE NARROW BAND OF 5 HUMAN SENSES, WITH A KING SIZED RESONATING PINEAL GLAND. THEY COULD TRANSCEND THE SENSES AND LIMITATION OF SPACE-TIME. There is a lot we knew 10000 years ago , but has been lost to this this 21st century-- right? You cant observe the quantum world without your Pineal gland -- the other 5 senses have too narrow bandwidths. Quantum physics has showed the ancient Indian Yogis were NOT mere dreamers of cosmic consciousness, where our bodies, our brain and its mind, as inextricably joined with other matter and the mega dipole of universe . There is indeed a connection between consciousness and tangled state quantum phenomena. They firmly believed that the invisible below the quantum screen gives rise to the visible. While Newton tries to explain the invisible through the visible. There is no room for consciousness or morphogenetic fields in the dictionary of Darwin. A mantra is a word or a series of words , which produce longitudinal Scalar waves by resonating your Pineal gland and your DNA—in a divine language. A divine language like Sanskrit came out from a 12 strand DNA – the most complicated supercomputer on this planet. The king Mantra OM or AUM is 11000 years old—and was told by the sages that it was the original sound when the Cosmos was created. OM opens up quantum tunneling for the wormholes to happen , where the speed of light is NOT the limiting factor. DNA is a superconductor that stores light at body temperature, and can create magnetic wormholes in ZPF .. Microtubules and axional membranes are also hollow cylinders. Mantras are Scalar energy based sounds which resonate in the Zero Point Field Aakashik hyperspace. ---Mantras resonate your pineal gland and reprogramme your DNA. The human DNA can produce longitudinal scalar waves. Mantras vibrations on DNA , chakras and pineal gland purifies and raises human consciousness. Mantras centres your mind ( effect on subconscious ) and slows down your breathing. Mantras increase your Auras as seen by Kirlean photography— due to the effect on symphathetic and para sympathetic nervous systems.---Mantra chanting must be done with intent, to make it more powerful. This is about consciousness again. Pranayama— where you exhale twice as long as inhale— IS MORE ABOUT DUMPING OLD EXPERIENCES, RATHER THAN MERE OXYGENATION OF BLOOD. Breathe in the new , breathe out the old. Pranayama—inhale and exhale with awareness— long exhales with the sound of mmmm. Humming boosts level of nitric oxide—this in turn ups the oxygen intake by 98%, the biggest secret . Ordinary breath is a mere 4%. 70% of toxins in your body are released by exhalation— rest by sweat, defecation and urine— surprised? The main purpose of respiration is to provide oxygen to the cells at a rate adequate to satisfy their metabolic needs. This involves transport of oxygen from the lung to the tissues by means of the circulation of blood. The power of breathing lies in its relationship with your energy source. The mind is intimately connected to your breathing. Deep breathing triggers the lymph, your body’s sewage system which will give your cells more efficiency. It keeps the blood fully oxygenated. The physical aspect of lack of oxygen in the body is not as important as the mental and spiritual aspect. Lack of oxygen always slows your reaction time. The more oxygen our brains receive the better they function. Stress, fear and anxiety causes muscles to contract and blood vessels to constrict. When blood cannot be transported freely through the body to provide oxygen, and antibodies and to carry away and dispose toxic wastes, illness sets in. Mind is non material , but it works in partnership with communicator molecules. With every thought mind moves atoms of hydrogen, carbon , oxygen and other particles in the brain . Knowing the connection between breath and consciousness, the ancient yogis devised PRANAYAMA to stabilise energy and consciousness. Anxiety vanishes entirely when you are one with the rest of the universe. When your mind is disturbed the fundamental energy Prana leaks . Pranayama just reverses the process. People who do Pranayama regularly have quieter nerves , less lethargy , better sleep and lower BP. It prevents accumulation of Uric acid which gives joint pains. Fluctuations of mind are controlled and hence Pranayama prepares you for meditation. Back to Surya namaskar-- Sage Agastya had taught Surya namaskar to Lord Rama just before his fight with Ravana in 4300BC. Basically you are greeting a new day with a grateful heart. It is done in open air. The benefits are:-- 1) You raise your consciousness 2) Develop inner peace 3) Rekindle your drooping spirit 4) Detoxification of body and mind 5) Your face glows --balance of mind, body and spirit. 6) Mental clarity and concentration 7) Raise your immunity 8) Reduces biological age. 9) Centring yourself and stoking your inner flame 10) Gratitude and communion with self 11) Awakening at cellular level, improves metabolism, burns fat 12) Expansion of perception 13) Physical exercise , stretching, flexing of spine. Removes stiffness of joints and ligaments. 14) Destress. 15) Good sleep at night. 16) Miraculous delivery from disease -physical and mental. 17) Your skin is cleansed by sunlight and you have less BO. Clears eyesight too. 18) Improves body posture.19) Drives away phobias.

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First things first.
A2 milk produced by humped India cow is good for health , while A1 milk produced by the humpless western cow is toxic for health.
For long the white man ridiculed the Indian vedic cow , saying that it gives very less milk.
3 decades ago, while entering river Thames for London with an Englishman  pilot on board.  I had an argument with the pilot or rather he had an argument with me over which cow is better.
I shot his argument down with one sentence .
The number of litres of milk given in a DAY is computed only by fools .  The number of litres per YEAR is computed by the wise . The Indian cow lactates three times more in a year than the humpless variety and hence gives more milk  .   
This is a question of perception and simple maths.
Also in India we prefer a ZERO maintenance cow,  rather than a fat Jersey cow who keeps eating and drinking throughout the day and falls sick often and hence has to be pumped with antibiotics. And this cow farts methane gas so often that the ozone layer gets a hole.  
Humpless cow fart is the No 1 culprit in global warming .
In India when we do the Agnihotra ritual it is imperative that we use ghee from A2 milk produced by the Indian cow.  Ghee from A1 milk causes negative effects.  Probably one day I will post a blog on quantum EINSTENIAN PAIN WAVES.
Punch into Google search-
Our ancient scriptures written by seers state that the humped Indian cow has a unique Surya Ketu Nadi on her back . This is the main reason why her blood has gold salts which produce miracles. We get copper from cow’s urine because of this nadi.
Similarly the gomutra of urine of a cow has good effect only if the urine is from a humped cow. The urine produced by a humpless cow is toxic.
Punch into Google search-
The various problems associated with humpless cow’s toxic  A1 milk are:
- Autism,
- Diabetes-type 1
- Sudden death Syndrome in infants
- Ulcerative colitis,
- Cardiac problems
- Multiple sclerosis,
- Mental disorders
- Parkinsons 
- Schizophrenia.
- Obesity
- Arteriosclerosis
- Intolerance bloating

Autistic and schizophrenic persons typically excrete large quantities of BCM7 in their urine.
Man can live on A2 milk of the humped Indian cow alone.

The west is now secretly engaged in smuggling our desi cows embryos from India . The West has found out several decades ago that the A2 milk of Indian humped cows is more beneficial, as it has micronutrients like cytokines and minerals which enhance the immune system (A2 beta-casein protein).
There are now in the agenda of converting their useless A1 cows to A2 cows . They come to India for embryos of the Punganur cow and the Vechur cow - -as a result of which these cows is now almost extinct. The ghee of Vechur cows was used in Ayurveda to produce medicines and lehyams.  Even today there there is no mechanism to check illegal export of embryos at sea ports in refrigerated containers.
I used to wonder how “the milkman of India” Kurian Varghese got the Magsaysay award.  For this Magsaysay award ,  the foremost qualification is that you have to be adesh drohi.

Verghese Kurian was born in my hometown Calicut with a Christian name , though he claimed to be an atheist.   In 1986 Kurian bagged the Wateler Peace Prize Award Carnegie Foundation of the Netherlands. 
Wonder what they found in Kurian other that he was a great advocate of allowing the Indian cow to be cross bred with Dutch humpless cows.  Some Gujarati  dairy farmers contemptuously gave him a few of his cross breed Holstein humpless cows as dowry on the day of the his daughter’s marriage .
Today almost all co-operative milk marketing federations churn out A1 milk from humpless cows.  Our policy-makers were treated like royalty by the West milk lobby. They were given free trips abroad and their children given scholarships in Western universities.  
Maintaining productive, indigenous bulls was prohibited by the Kerala Livestock Act, 1961, such has been the power of the lobbying West.
Punch into Google search –


When Gandhi went to Britain to see the Queen, he took his goat along for a steady supply of A2 milk. I suppose he did NOT want to consume A1 milk and fart in front of the queen or worse- even fall sick.

Today the citizens of the Western countries have woken up.  They buy only A2 milk from their super markets.  Yet in India we are being forced to buy toxic A1 milk from these FDI in multibrand retail stores like Walmart. The Indian hospitals and doctors are aware of this, but they keep quiet. After all the business is booming. 

Today a huge percentage of the Indian bull has been sent to slaughter houses , with the lobbied up western stooge connivance. The government of the waitress turned empress is busy importing semen from western humpless bulls . 
There are few quality desi bulls left for natural mating. Today Brazil and European countries are minting money by selling desi bull semen which they have stolen from India.
The goverments have distributed thousands of humpless Jersey cows to the poor in India. Once the lactation cycle is done, these cows become white elephants tethered to their backyards requiring enormous quantities of food and water.  
Just like how Monsanto is distributing sterile seeds to control the food chain, using their lobbied up desh drohi Indian politicians , we are now at the mercy of the evil west for A2 milk.
Punch into Google search-
The Indian cow does NOT require any antibiotics and need every little food and water. They are zero maintenance animals. Indigenous cows with hump have strong immunity.. Frequency of illness is more in the exotic humpless cows
The western cows have mutated DNA due to the cycle of violence for beef .  When a cow is killed it sends out soliton waves . The vedic seers have been wise when they banned cow slaughter.
Over centuries the polluted ground water in western countries where they bury their dead has affected the DNA causing the cows to produce A1 milk.
When you drink A1 milk , during digestion proteins in milk are broken down in to peptides. Most of these peptides are converted in to amino acids to be absorbed by the blood stream. But all peptides do not get broken down in to amino acids to get absorbed.
Some are excreted in our stools and some manage to get through the leaks in gut wall in to the blood stream while still in peptide form. A1 milk releases in human body the peptide called BCM7 (Betacasomorphine 7). This is an opium family substance, and has been associated with a very large number of serious diseases. One liter A1 Milk contains24-32gms of casein of which 9 to12 grams is BCM7 ( about two tea spoons).
The humped Indian cows have a pleasant smell , while the humpless cows give a repulsive odour.   Indian cows have a shiny appearance and not a furry texture  like the humpless cows – Cows skin should have short glossy hair with greasy appearance which acts as an insect repellent.  
When you rub your hands on the Indian cow, a slight oily sheen created by the cow’s sebum glands stick to your hands. This prevents any dirt clinging on to the body. The western cow’s ass is always smudged with sh#t.
Our desi cows repels flies and mosquitoes and remains clean, while foreign cows remain dirty with flies hovering on them. 
Even if the Indian cow eats paper and plastic surprisingly there is negligible effect on its milk and urine as they take all ill effects in its own body.—and we don’t slaughter them for beef.  The hump on the Indian cows help them to adjust the daily water requirement . 

A2 milk of indigenous humped cows is more beneficial, micronutrients like cytokines and minerals present enhance the immune system.  Exotic humpless breeds have more A1 milk but very little nutrients.
The dewlaps( skin on the neck ) helps them to cope with the extreme heat, keep most diseases away and also calve without any difficulty.   Larger the dewlap, better the resistance power of the cow towards parasites and diseases.  

The hooves of Indian cows are small in size and the rear hooves split should be very close to each other.  It should not be wide open.  Indian cattle have developed strong hooves to walk on uneven and rocky terrain.
The dung of the Indian humped cow is covered by a  thin mucous which ling and has a pleasant smell and not foul odor like the western humpless cows..
You can feel the Surya Ketu Nadi of any pure Zebu cattle (Indian humped cow).  When you move your fingers through the backbone starting from the hump you should be able to feel a small cavity on the backbone denoting the nerve.  
This nadi causes all secretions of purity, whether it is milk or urine or cowdung . The nadi absorbs energy from sun and the universe as per our ancient ayurvedic texts written by our seers . On a western or hybrid cow backbone will be visible using the sense of eyesight but no such nerve can be felt .

Verghese Kurian ( whose sh#t does not smell in India today thanks to the foreign funded media )  left National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) after being its chairman for 33 years, and passed on its reins to his own prodigee Dr Amrita Patel.  
He is now dead without being punished for his crimes against indigenous cattle and our Indian culture of having milk from humped cows. 
All desh bhakt Indians should honour the proud Gir herders of Gujarat for resisting western stooge Kurian Verghese .
Thank god for the A2 temple bulls which are still alive , which the soulless communist ministers and the lobbied up Christian ministers have NOT been able to kill.  

What type of immoral westerners will advise India to kill their A2 bulls , while they themselves are converting their A1 bulls to the A2 grade.
In Kerala successive  governments  wanted a complete elimination of Indian humped bulls.  The Vechur cow was extinct.   Some students from a vetinary college of Trissur was shown a Vechur cow happily grazing all alone and they started dancing with joy.  Today there are nearly a hundred vechur cows in the Veterinary College of Trissur.

The Punjab Gausewa Board (PGB), has declared that more than 81% percent of the state’s nearly 1.1 lakh stray cattle are exotic crossbreeds.  Punjabis are now the major consumers of GM grain thanks to Monsanto and the Green revolution.  Punjabi youth are caught in a web of drugs thanks to these toxic foods which mutate the DNA.  
The ideal calcium to magnesium ratio for the human body should be 2:1.  The A1 milk's ratio is 10:1. By relying on A1 cow's milk for calcium, you will have magnesium deficiency and imbalance.
Magnesium relaxes you, helps improve digestion, increases alkalinity of the blood and flexibility of the tissues. It is a muscle relaxant.  Magnesium is critical for the assimilation of calcium into the bones and is crucial for regular heart function.  Magnesium is anti-inflammatory and a de-toxifier.  Magnesium is the master molecule of the human body and is needed in over 300 different process the body performs.  It is the catalyst of life.  
Magnesium is involved in nerve and muscle function.  Magnesium activates the enzymes necessary for a number of physiological functions, including neuromuscular contractions, heart and cardiovascular function, and the regulation of the acid-alkaline balance in the body.  2% of Migraines are related Calcium magnesium imbalance.  Magnesium is required for the body to produce and store energy. Without magnesium there is no energy, no movement, no life.  It is that simple.  
Magnesium permits a small amount of calcium to enter a nerve cell, just enough to allow electrical transmission along the nerves to and from the brain, then forces it back outside.  Even our thoughts, via brain neurons, are dependent on magnesium. Since 99% of magnesium resides inside living cells, blood serum levels are not a good indicator of magnesium deficiency.  Ionized magnesium testing is the only effective way of diagnosing accurate magnesium levels in the body. Too much A1 cow's milk will lower magnesium levels .
 Different mutations in bovine beta casein gene have led to 12 genetic variants and out of these A1 and A2 are the most common. The A1 and A2 variants of beta casein differ at amino acid position 67 with histidine (CAT) in A1 and proline (CCT) in A2 milk as a result of single nucleotide difference.
This polymorphism leads to a key conformational change in the secondary structure of expressed β-casein protein. Gastrointestinal proteolytic digestion of A1 variant of β-casein (raw/processed milk) leads to generation of bioactive peptide, beta casomorphin 7 (BCM7 ).
The gene encoding beta-casein was changed such that the 67th amino acid in the 209 amino acid chain that is the beta-casein protein was switched from proline to histidine.  This new kind of beta-casein that was created is known as A1 beta-casein, and is generally more common in many of the big black-and-white cow breeds of European descent such as the Holstein and Friesian. Indian humped cows have uniform colour.

Beta casein protein is a long chain of amino acids, 209 to be precise. Repeating- the beta casein in A1 milk contains histidine at amino acid 67 and the beta casein in A2 milk contains proline at amino acid 67. 

The inflammation from A1 milk casein causes lymphatic congestion and metabolic suppression.A1 milk worsens acne, eczema, upper respiratory infections, asthma and allergies.  It causes digestive problems, and not because of the lactose, but because of  massive histamine release from casomorphin.  Ear infections, bronchitis , tonsillitis are driven by A1 casein, and in adulthood, the same immune-disruption manifests as other inflammatory conditions.

 A1 milk casein sustains endometriosis,  because it of its inflammatory, immune-disruptive effect.  This condition improves avfer shunning A1 milk. Endometriosis is a gynecological medical condition in which cells from the lining of the uterus (endometrium) appear and flourish outside the uterine cavity, most commonly on the membrane which lines the abdominal cavity. Many women with infertility may have endometriosis.
Every Indian must know that A1 milk of the humpless western cow , will kill them prematurely.  This is the milk you get in super markets and from co-operative societies. They must get this new across to their loved ones and well wishers.

Most of our A2 bulls have vanished  because of slaughter . Artificial insemination from A1 bulls are making our native breeds extinct.  If the desh bhakts in India do NOT resist,  our pure Vedic desi breeds are likely to disappear within this a decade.
The European Union , Australia and New Zealand are now consuming safe A2 milk and dumping their toxic A1 milk products in India  via the FDI in retail stores.
The gene pool of the indigenous Indian cow has been allowed to fade away by these foreign award winning desh drohis , in connivance with the foreign funded media.
India is rushing headlong towards food security suicide. Thanks to our waitress turned empress and her desh drohi coterie.   The first thing the new UPA CM Siddaramiah ( atheist ) of Karrataka does is to declare that he will stop the ban of cow slaughter – of humped cows and humped bulls.
So here we are, heading with suicidal speed towards jeopardising our nation’s food security,  ruining the backbone of our agro-economy and handing the control of our dairy industry to foreign markets. We are witnessing the end of the Vedic Kamadhenu cow.
The day is not far when India will have to beg for GM seeds and bull semen from Zionist multinationals.
Grace and peace!
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A couple of years ago, I was sitting in my lawn at dusk , next to the running waterfall, which had a mini tulsi tapovan at the brink.  I had put on the garden light at the waterfall.

One of my friends popped in and asked me what I was doing.

I said ” I am taking in my daily quota of negative ions and ozone !”.

He laughed it off— but I could NOT have been more serious.

Now I must explain in greater detail about my natural negative ion generator ( water fall ) and ozone generator ( mini tulsi grotto ) .

Any waterfall generates negative ions. All viruses have a positive dipole charge. Negative ions attached itself to it and enlarges the virus.  Viruses are so tiny that our lungs cant pull them out, unless they are enlarged.
Negative ions create an alkaline environment. Cancer cells survive only in an acidic environment, which is an oxygen impoverished environment.

Ozone kills virus and bacteria.

Free radicals are positive ions in your body, which shuts down your immune system and causes cells to become weak. This makes you fall sick faster and age faster.
When positive ions permeate into your skin, your sweat pores contract. Negative ions cause the pores to expand and increase metabolism.
85% negative ions are absorbed by the skin and the balance via the lungs. Negative ions in the blood stream activates delivery of oxygen to cells and tissues. Negative charged environment stimulates the body’s self healing mechanism.
Ionising a room drives away the dust , viruses and bacteria, as bacteria thrives on dust. This is the reason why the best hospitals of this planet have negative ion generators in the post operation rooms . You can buy this in the market too for your home. Negative ions do NOT have any adverse side effects.
Even modern poultry farms have negative ion generators. Almost all major soccer clubs have negative ionisers in the change rooms.
Basically these machines use high voltage to ionize or electrically charge air molecules—they have an extra electron, to donate to electron wrenching free radicals.

Waterfalls and flowing living water streams produce negative ions.  All Vedic rishis sat near clear fast flowing brooks and waterfalls, to improve their concentration.
Negative ions lower the blood pressure. It reduces allergy causes asthma.
Overproduction of Serotonin in the brain , causing blood vessels leading to the brain to dilate , stretching pain receptors -- causes migraines. 
 Remember , people having migraines must not allow the blankets to touch the body while sleeping. Keep a cotton sheet in between the blanket and your body.
Any form of combustion increases positive ions.
Inhaling negative ions regulates the production of Serotonin in your brain. It controls depression and is a better way that the use of medicines like Prozac which have side effects. Serotonin causes mental fatigue.
Negative ionisers help you to sleep better. Negative ions accelerate the oxidative degradation of Serotonin. Positive ions on the other hand sabotage the enzymes which breakdown serotonin.
Increased Serotonin causes increased sensitivity to pain and hence heightened aggression , hence higher BP, and bronchiospasm (asthma ), and reduction of pH.

Ionisers should NOT be confused with ozone generators. Like how a waterfall cannot be confused with a Tulsi ( Basil ) plant.

Negative ion is an oxygen atom with an extra electron. Negative ions cannot pass through walls. Ionisers use electrostatically charges plates to produce negative ions, on which positively charges dust and bacteria gets stuck.
They aggregate and clump together to get heavy to remain airborne and fall down. Ozone generators use UV lights or high voltage electric charge to attract an extra oxygen ion to an oxygen molecule.
Ozone is a molecule with 3 oxygen atoms. Ozone oxidises airborne pollutants , where one oxygen atom splits off, and then reverts back to oxygen leaving behind cleansed air.
Negative ions and ozone are nature’s most powerful air cleansers. There is nothing on this planet more effective than a negative ion generator and ozoniser to cleanse the air we breathe, by removing allergens and contaminants.

On ships we have ozoniser in vegetable rooms fridges. This helps fresh fruits and veggies to stay fresh longer, as ozone controls surface mould and decay.. Ozone is one of the most powerful oxidants and germicides known.
The single oxygen atom just burns up the particle and self destructs too, thus leaving behind pure oxygen. Wonderful, right?
In swimming pools ( algae ) and homes water ( odour , germs ) is purified by ozone. Most of the modern morgues have an ozonizer. Almost all modern hospital operation theaters have ozonisers, as ozone prevents gangrene. Ozone is used to treat industrial liquid waste.
For human beings make sure the ozone concentration does NOT exceed 0.15 ppm. At this stage you can smell ozone. So far no human deaths have been attributed to ozone. Ozone cannot improve your mood like negative ions. Negative ions in the blood stream accelerate the delivery of oxygen to the cells.
Negative ions promote alpha waves in your brain.  Do NOT use vapourisers or moisturisers with negative ion generators-as that will create positive ions.

Enough of science—now I must get back to quantum plant Tulsi.  The chemistry of Tulsi is highly complex as it contains hundreds of beneficial compounds known as phyto-chemicals .
Tulsi gives off Ozone at night with a suitable lamp providing light for photosynthesis.  All other plants on this planet give off carbon di oxide at night.

In Vrindavan , Lord Krishna used to frolic with the milkmaids in a Tulasi forest , where the Tulsi trees were  twelve feet high!  People have tried to play peeping toms and the effect of the ozone made them mad by daybreak..

Tulsi is a sacred plant , known as the Mother of Ayurveda. The remarkable thing about Tulsi is that, unlike other medicinal plants, she is effective even if she is not consumed. Just her close proximity is enough.
Tulsi plant was the result of Samudra Manthan or churning of the oceans. 

The King's chamber of the Great pyramid is a representation of etherical abode of Lord Shiva , the Mount Meru of Vedic Hindu Mythology.  Mount Meru extends from earth into space to a height of 85 times earth's diameter.  Lord Shiva is the destroyer god of the Trinity of Tamas Rajas Satwa ( yin-yang ) or creator/ preserver/ destroyer, represented by Shiva's trident.  Meru was used to churn the oceans , Sagar Manthan for divine nectar.

Most of the traditional Hindu homes , away from concrete jungle cities, have Tulsi plant, right in front of the door. In cities they keep it  indoors in a little pot. No self respecting Hindu household is considered complete without the Tulsi plant, this is because the presence of a Tulsi plant in a home signifies the presence of Goddess Lakshmi herself .
Every morning the lady of the house waters it and offers her respects to the basil plant. In the evenings people light a lamp and place it by the plant or in the pot. Hindu women do NO even step on the shadow of Tulsi, as a sign of respect.
For it  is a representation of goddess Lakshmi, the goddess of prosperity.  Every year, Hindus celebrate the onset of the wedding season after the Diwali festival by performing the marriage ceremony of the Tulsi plant with an idol of lord Krishna, an avatar of lord Vishnu

The story of Lord Krishna has it that when Krishna was weighed in gold, not even all the ornaments of Satyabhama could outweigh him. But a single Tulsi leaf placed by Rukmini on the pan tilted the scale.

Tulsi is one of the eight indispensable things in Vedic worship.

When leaves are plucked , the following Sanskrit mantra is chanted –

cayanodbhava-duhkham ca
yad hrdi tava vartate
tat ksamasva jagan-matah
vrnda devi namo’ stu te

“O Tulasi devi, I offer my respectful obeisances unto you. Kindly forgive me if I have caused you pain by picking your leaves and manjaris, O mother of the universe.”

tulasy amrta-janmasi
sada tvam kesava-priya
kesavartham cinomi tvam
varada bhava sobhane

“O Tulasi devi, your birth is from nectar, and you are always dear to Lord Kesava. It is for Lord Kesava that I collect your leaves. O beautiful Tulasi, please grant us this boon to serve the Lord.”

 There are two types of Tulasi.  One is called Krishna Tulasi because it is said to be the same colour as Sri Krishna – purple.  
The other is called Rama Tulasi  and is light green in colour.  Krishna Tulasi is the more powerful of the two.

The Devi Bhagavata Purana regards Tulsi as an manifestation of Lakshmi, the goddess of wealth and wife of Lord Vishnu.
The white invader made up a COCK AND BULL story to denigrate Hindusim.  Lord Vishnu rapes Vrinda and her husband  Jalandhara dies.  Vrinda cursed Vishnu to become a stone, turning him the Shaligram stone.  Vrinda immolated herself in her husband's funeral pyre  as per horrible Hindu custom Sati..  But Vishnu ensured that she got incarnated in the form of tulsi plant on the earth—so that he can sexually assault her again and again ..

Nobody heard of Sati, till the white invader came to India.  Every where on Wikipedia they are equating Lord Vishnu with Vithoba – a creation of the white invader ..

The shila deities and the tulasi plant are thus always worshipped together as Vishnu and Lakshmi.

Tulsi Leaf is not offered to Shiva, just as Bel Leaves, dear to Shiva, are not offered to Vishnu. Tulsi leaves are also not offered to Goddess Lakshmi as she was once annoyed during her lovesport with Vishnu, when his attention got diverted towards Tulsi.

Saligram is a  black ammonite stone, with the imprint of a golden ratio marine cephalopod fossil. It is found only in the Gandaki River of Nepal .  Saligram is not worshipped in houses because it is said ir raises tension and anxiety.

Tulsi has been used since 9000 BC by the Vedic Maharishis.  It is mentioned in the Charaka Samhita, an ancient Ayurvedic text, written in 5000 BC in Sankrit. Tulsi is an adaptogen balancing different processes in the body, and helpful for adapting to stress.
Marked by its strong aroma and astringent taste, it is regarded in Ayurveda as a kind of "elixir of life" and promotes longevity.


If you plant Tulasi plants  in your garden the air will be pure within a wide radius, and bacteria-free. Tulasi plant is extremely sensitive and aware, and quickly able to register the vibrations around her.
Living Tulsi leaves contain a natural ether, which drives away mosquitoes . The British loved to plant it in their lawns calling it “Mosquito Plant”.

Tulsi is venerated as a goddess in Hinduism and considered a wife of god Vishnu.  It is a small plant, with about 5 cm long leaves, it gains a maximum height of 1 metre. Its leaves having a peculiar smell, have small hair on their upper and lower surfaces.
Traditionally, in temples the priests keep water and Tulasi leaves in a copper pot and offer three small spoonfuls as prasadam to devotees, who drink part of it and dribble the remainder on their heads.

Susruta Samhita, Padampurana and Garudpurana, after centuries of observation in humans, describes Tulsi as a ‘child giver' and great spermatogenic agent. They report Tulsi as a fertility Improver and enhance the chances of woman bearing progeny.

Tulsi is the pillar of the traditional Ayurvedic holistic health system . , Tulsi also alkalizes the body . It increases the body's efficient use of oxygen, boosts the immune system, slows down aging and provides a rich supply of anti-oxidants and other nutrients.
Tulsi protects you from solar Radiation . In the event of a nuclear holocaust, Tulsi will be the only savior. 
Tulsi boosts the body's ability to fight off damaging free radicals, which have been linked to disease and aging. 

It is an adaptogen that helps the body fight the effects of ongoing stress and also balances the mind, nerves and emotions

Steaming the face with tulsi leaves flushed out the toxins and leaves the face glowing. It is good for acne prone skin. It is an anti-wrinkle agent. Tulsi is also a skin rasayana. With vitamin C, carotene, calcium and phosphorus, Tulsi helps skin stay healthy and supple

The leaf  ( Ocimum tenuiflorum ) contains mercury, and is an antibiotic or antibacterial.. Hormonal imbalance is regulated in both men and women by the consumption of Tulasi.

Tulsi both aids in digestion, increasing digestive fire and the secretion of digestive enzymes. It heals disorders of the digestive tract such as ulcers and internal lesions. Tulsi stimulates appetite. Tulsi helps to break up kidney stones.

Being an antimicrobial agent , it heals the urinary tract infection. It eliminates problems such as urine acidity, passing blood or pus in the urine. For men, Tulsi strengthens prostate health and increases sperm count. Fresh Tulsi juice helps in strengthening the immune system of the body.

Tulsi is an cough expectorant and a cure for malaria and other dis-eases, especially cold-induced ones like coughs, bronchitis, pneumonia, etc. Taking a few leaves mixed with a teaspoonful of ginger juice and honey immediately controls bouts of dry cough and removes any bronchial spasm .

The seeds can be used as a diuretic. It reduces uric acid level. It is good for your liver.

Tulsi can inactivate viruses, bacteria, and cancer cells, scavenge free radicals in the body, stimulate the immune system, and prevent degenerative diseases.
Healthy cells have certain enzymes that protect them from being oxidized. Unhealthy cancer cells don’t have these enzymes to protect them from being oxidized and can be killed by ozone

The juice of tulsi leaves is used to bring down fever. In acute fever, a decoction of tulsi leaves boiled with powdered cardamom, sugar and milk can lower and control the temperature.
It can be cure sore throat. Chewing 12 leaves twice a day reduces stress. It eliminates bad breath and infections of the mouth. It is used for the treatment of ringworm and leucoderma. Tulsi paste is applied on the forehead to relieve headache.
Tulsi juice has been traditionally used for night blindness. It is used as a deworming agent .Consuming one spoon each of basil and ginger juice helps in cramps and stomachache.
Juice of basil leaves and honey taken regularly for six months can be useful in expelling renal stones. The extracts of Tulsi leaf helps in inhibiting the enzyme of filarial worm and is anti-tubercular. Tulasi leaves can also be crushed or ground into a paste and applied externally to wounds

Tulsi is taken in many forms: as herbal tea, dried powder, fresh leaf, or mixed with ghee. Essential oil extracted from Karpoora Tulsi is mostly used for medicinal purposes and in herbal toiletry.
For centuries, the dried leaves of Tulsi have been mixed with stored grains to repel insects. A decoction of 10 to 20 leaves taken along with a pinch of rock salt abates digestive problems like flatulence and anorexia

Tulsi OIL has antibacterial , insecticidal properties, antioxidant, anti inflammatory, anti cancer, antiviral, anti allergic, anti mutagenic and antimicrobial properties. The oil prevents inflammation of mucous membrane especially in the respiratory tract,  produces perspiration, can cure ear aches, and is a good immuno-modulatory agent.
When massaged on feet in reflexology, it helps relieve body-ache, fatigue and promotes good sleep

Recognizing the anti-pollutant, anti-oxidation and air-purifying properties of tulsi, the Indian government has recently launched a Tulsi plantation drive around Taj Mahal and other world heritage monuments as an eco-protection measure to contain the ravages of chemical pollution caused by nearby industrial units.

Jesus Christ was in Kerala for 3 years before he went with Mary Magdalene to the pyramids . He then  suddenly burst upon the scene at Jesusalem. Mary Magdalene had taken a potted Tulsi plant at the spot of his crucification. The Jews love to say that the basil plant grew on the spot by itself.

Yanmoole sarva tirthaani yannagre sarva devataa
Yanmadhye sarva vedaascha Tulasi taam namaamyaham.

I bow down to the Tulasi, at whose base (the roots) are all the holy places, at whose top reside all the deities (divinity), and in whose middle are all the Vedas.

Water mixed with tulsi petals is given to the dying to raise their departing souls to heaven.
Read more…


Karva Chaut ritual if done the right way, has this mysterious benefit of regularizing a woman’s periods and synchronizing it with the moon..  

The length of a menstrual cycle varies greatly among women, ranging from 25 to 35 days.

I can imagine some women whose awareness about their own bodies is purely pedestrian , wondering—what is all this estrogen, progesterone all about. What is the big fu#kin' deal ?  Ancient Hindu women never knew PMS problems.
Effects of Progesterone
Effects of Estrogen
Increases libido
Decreases libido
Prevents cancer of the womb
Increases risk of womb cancer
Protects against fibrocystic breast
Stimulates breast cell activity
Maintains the lining of the uterus
Proliferates the lining of the
Stimulates the building of new
Slows down the resorption of old
Strengthens skin
Thins skin
Is a natural diuretic
Encourages salt and water retention
Brings antidepressant effects
Can produce headaches and depression
Encourages fat burning
and the use of stored energy
Lays down fat stores
Normalizes blood clotting
Increases blood clotting
Concerned with the procreation and 
 survival of the fetus
Concerned with the development
and release of the egg
Precursor to important stress hormones
End-molecule steroids

Once on a transpacific flight , while waiting for the toilet to be free early in the morning , I saw the airhostess in her pantry rubbing cream some cream on her breasts and inner thighs.  
Don’t ask me now , if she was flashing.   I aint tellin’.
I asked her  “Progesterone ?”
She says “ Yeah, how do you know”.
So I educated her “ the cream is meant to be used from full moon to new moon , if you wanna team up with the cycle of the Moon and the Earth  — the same cycle that governs the tides and the flow of fluids on the planet.  Of course your doctor wont know that ”
Noticing that she was receptive I introduced her to natural progesterone, which works a thousand times better , without the side effects of synthetic progesterone.
Punch into Google search-

Chembu yam contains natural PROGESTERONE.  It also catalyses the human body's production of Progesterone.
Low progesterone cannot  counter excessive estrogen — an imbalance  exacerbated by chronic stress.  Synthetic progesterone, has side effects.
When natural progesterone surges through a woman’s body she is on a natural high.  She now years to create something, to dance , crack jokes, hum a song, or make wild naughty love in public places.  Sometimes progesterone surges can indeed feel like falling in love. 
It is a feeling of well being and intense excitement – a desire to explore new worlds, and to try new things. It is a high level of progesterone that makes a woman feel on top of the world during the last months of pregnancy.  Women know what I mean.  Men know of the glow on her face, which was NOT there before. 
At this time the placenta churns out an amazing 300 to 400 milligrams of the steroid, while during the luteal phase of her menstrual cycle it will have only been producing 20 milligrams or so a day.

A big chunk of women who think they have a disease called “depression” are actually low in progesterone.   
Among the many symptoms of low progesterone are::
Mood swings insomnia
Pain and inflammation
Painful menstruation
Low progesterone during this “luteal” or “moon phase” of one’s menstrual cycle is referred to commonly as PMS.   During this PMS time of the month low progesterone and normal or high estrogen levels create the typical pattern of “estrogen dominance,” with weight gain, water retention, breast tenderness, mood swings and nag nag nag crabbiness.  
Most of the western divorces are due to a clinical condition, which could have been easily solved..  Will you disown your mother because she has a clinical condition ?
Several days after the full moon, the estrogen level drops rapidly and progesterone begins to take over.  The dark phase of the moon is associated with the lowest levels of estrogen and progesterone. The body sheds the excess uterine lining,  resulting in menstruation. What was built up is now broken down and released.  
During this phase, a woman turns inward, emotionally and physically.  She has less interest in outside matters and craves sleep.  Women have NO idea that they can be psychics at this segment of time,  if they can connect to the cosmic force of the moon.
The term Natal Lunar Phase Fertile Time refers to the angle between the sun and the moon when you were born.  Each month when the moon returns to this same position (as it was on the day of a woman’s birth) it can trigger her body to spontaneously ovulate even if this time occurs outside her normal midcycle fertile time. Now it may not always do this, but the potential is there.
Your personal lunar phase is repeated every month when the moon is in the exact position in relation to the sun as it was at the time of your birth.
If your cycle doesn’t match with the moon’s, keep your bedroom dark until your cycle matches the moon’s cycle.  What most doctors don’t know is that the moon can trigger ovulation during other phases of her menstrual cycle.  This phenomenon is called "lunar fertility".
On the other hand if women with too long and irregular menstrual cycles sleep with a bright natural light bulb beside them from days 13 to 17 of their cycles will shorten , as it has happened from an average of of 46 days to 32 days. 
Before the invention of electricity melatonin production would have increased at the full moon, when more light would have reached the pineal gland at night.   Lower production of the hormone would coincide with the darkness surrounding the phase of the new moon. The changes in melatonin production, with the help of other hormones tell the ovaries when to release an egg. 
When living in the lap of nature without electricity, the full moon gave more light at night, and menses would have occurred near the darker part of the month, around the new moon when there was less light. However, in modern times with so much electric light pollution, there is little variance in how much night time light reaches our eyes over the course of a month.
Because of this women now ovulate and give birth at varying times during the lunar cycle.  The pineal gland in her brain sends messages to her ovary, by hormones, to release an egg based on the amount of light her brain senses in the night when she is asleep. 
At the point of most light in the night, the full moon, she is programmed to ovulate. Moonlight makes women feel horny and receptive to sex.  During the waning Moon, higher progesterone prepares the womb for the possibility of new life.

After the Karva Chauth fast, the woman eats a veggie meal rich in magnesium.
Magnesium is important to break down excess estrogens Make sure you have good levels of magnesium as it can can help the balance of estrogen and progesterone.
You require magnesium to manufacture progesterone and a lack of it means you won't be able to manufacture progesterone.  
Magnesium is the master molecule of the human body and is needed in over 300 different process the body performs. It is the catalyst of life. Lack of Magnesium impacts our cell’s efficiency and duration of its useful life. 

The main reason for magnesium deficiency in the human body is stress, as stress causes Magnesium to be flushed out through the urine or bowels . Deficiency of magnesium causes the body to accumulate toxins, degenerate quickly and premature aging leading to a host of other diseases.
Magnesium is essential for proper electrical and neurotransmitter function in the brain.  It help prevents cognitive decline and improve brain plasticity to better deal with stress and anxiety. Diuretics can cause Magnesium deficiency. Coconut water is an excellent health drink.   It has Calcium 2%, Magnesium 9%, Potassium5%.   
Magnesium compounds keep calcium in solution.  If you are deficient in magnesium, you can get kidney or gall stones that contain insoluble forms of calcium.  Magnesium activates the enzymes necessary for a number of physiological functions, including neuromuscular contractions, heart and cardiovascular function, and the regulation of the acid-alkaline balance in the body. Depression and anxiety can begin with an imbalance of calcium and magnesium. 
Too much calcium can contribute to depression and irritability, whereas magnesium helps your brain make the calming chemical called dopamine. Magnesium calms your emotions as well as your muscles.  

Serotonin is a natural antidepressant, but your brain needs magnesium in order to make serotonin.  Low serotonin production can cause a number of symptoms including depression, obsessive thinking, and anxiety. When you're under stress your body loses more magnesium than usual. 
Stress causes your adrenal glands to produce more adrenaline and other hormones, like cortisol, causing more magnesium excretion. When your magnesium is low, your adrenal glands produce still more cortisol, which in turn decreases your levels of DHEA, -- an anti-aging hormone . 

Magnesium regulates the enzyme that makes cholesterol. The body makes cholesterol for a reason. All steroid hormones that run our bodies (stress hormones, sex hormones, and so forth) are ultimately made from cholesterol.  
Without magnesium there is no energy, no movement, no life. It is that simple.  Magnesium permits a small amount of calcium to enter a nerve cell, just enough to allow electrical transmission along the nerves to and from the brain, then forces it back outside. Even our thoughts, via brain neurons, are dependent on magnesium.  Cell death - cardiac necrosis is the result of a systemic shortage of magnesium.
Symptoms due to a lack of magnesium :
Early symptoms:
Poor memory
Reduced ability to learn
Severe deficiency:
Seeing or hearing things that aren't there (hallucinations)
Read more…

In a previous article titled “The Opet Festival of Ancient Egypt: Has it been derived from the Jagannatha Rathyatra of Puri, India?” I had pointed out the many similarities between Amun, the all-powerful Creator god of the ancient Egyptians (with his primary center of worship at Thebes), and Krishna, the Supreme Creator of the Vedic Indians. Both of them were blue-complexioned, wore “feathers in their head-dress” and were depicted with a “sacred river” emerging from their feet. In addition, the grand Opet festival of the ancient Egyptians, which was celebrated over a period of 24-27 days during the season of the flooding of the Nile, is identical in form and spirit to the Jagannath Rathyatra festival that is still celebrated every year at the tiny coastal town of Puri, India. The worship of Krishna (or Jagannath) and the observance of the Rathyatra festival are quintessentially Vedic festivals, which have been observed for thousands of years prior to the establishment of the cult of Amun at Thebes (as per the information contained in many Sanskrit texts). This implies that the Vedic triad of divinities – Krishna, Balarama and Subhadra – must have been transferred from India to Egypt sometime prior to the beginning of the New Kingdom in c. 1550 BC.

On further investigation I found many more similarities between these two ancient deities – Amun and Krishna. A number of hymns from the ancient Coffin Texts of Egypt associate Amun with the falcon-headed god Horus, while in Hindu myths Krishna is associated with the eagle-headed deity Garuda, who acts as his vahana i.e. carrier. Even the etymology of the name Amun has close associations with Krishna. In Egyptian, Amun is written as Ymn, which has been reconstructed by Egyptologists to “Yamanu”, and sometimes also spelled as “Yamun”. “Yamanu” or “Yamun” is very closely related to the sacred river “Yamuna” in India, which is intimately tied up with the childhood of Krishna, who grew up on the banks of the river Yamuna. The waters of the Yamuna are of a dark-blue color, which has been likened to the complexion of Krishna, and the river is regarded as the source of love, compassion and spiritual capabilities. It is possible that the Egyptian Ymn, may actually be a reference to the Yamuna, which became shortened to Yamun, and subsequently to Amun.

Even at a metaphysical level, Amun and Krishna are very similar. Amun was regarded as the “hidden one”, and the epithet, "he whose name is hidden", was frequently applied to him. Amun’s form was “unknown”, and it was said that no-one could behold or understand him, except Amun himself. The Boulaq Papyrus from the XVIII Dynasty (1552-1295 BC) describes Amun as the “Greatest in Heaven…Lord of all, who is in all things.” Amun abides in all; everything happens in him, and nothing exists outside him. He is the Supreme Creator: “The One maker of all things, Creator and Maker of beings, From Whose eyes mankind proceeded, From Whose mouth the Gods were created.” He was, “The One Whose forms are greater than every God, In Whose Beauty the Gods jubilate.” Amun was also the “champion of the poor” and he became the “personal savior” of anyone who took him into his heart.

“[Amun] who comes at the voice of the poor in distress, who gives breath to him who is wretched…You are Amun, the Lord of the silent, who comes at the voice of the poor; when I call to you in my distress You come and rescue me.”i

The same epithets are also associated with Krishna. Krishna is “karuna seendhu” (sea of compassion) and “deena bandhu” (the friend of the poor), who responds to a devotee’s call instantly, as exemplified in the Mahabharata, when he was invoked by Draupadi. In the Bhagavad Gita, Krishna asks Arjuna to regard him as his only protector, for, he says, “Remembering me, you shall overcome all difficulties through my grace.”ii Krishna, like Amun, abides in the heart of all creatures as the indestructible “Self”, and his “unknowable form” pervades the entire cosmos. The birth and dissolution of the cosmos itself take place in Krishna: “There is nothing that exists separate from me, Arjuna. The entire universe is suspended from me as my necklace of jewels”iii. Although, Krishna remains unknowable and invisible, the multifarious celestial beings of this created world reflect his various divine attributes: “Wherever you find strength, or beauty, or spiritual power, you may be sure that these have sprung from a spark of my essence.”iv Yet, no-one could understand the real nature of Krishna, for Arjuna tells Krishna, “Neither gods nor demons know your real nature. Indeed, you alone know yourself, O Supreme Spirit.”v This is similar to the Egyptian texts which assert that no-one could behold or understand Amun, except Amun himself. Krishna further confirms this: “I know everything about the past, the present, and the future, Arjuna; but there is no one who knows me completely”vi.

In fact, the entire Theban triad of Amun, Mut and Khonsu, are related to the triad of divinities – Krishna, Balaram and Subhadra - worshipped at the Jagannath temple at Puri, India. Krishna’s brother, the fair-skinned Balaram, is considered to be an incarnation of “Ananta-Sesha” - the primeval serpent of the abyss, in whose coils Vishnu rests in the middle of the cosmic Milky Ocean. Ananta-Sesha is himself a powerful agent of creation, and he co-exists with Vishnu at the beginning and end of the creative cycle. We find the same imagery associated with Khonsu, the son of Amun. On one of the walls at Karnak, a cosmogony is depicted in which Khonsu is described as the “Great Snake who fertilizes the Cosmic Egg in the creation of the world” (Wikipedia). In addition, Mut (who is believed to have been the wife of Amun), and Subhadra, the sister of Krishna, were both regarded as manifestations of the great mother goddess.

Fig 1: Krishna, Balaram and Subhadra - The Puri Triad. Subhadra is in the center, flanked by the dark-complexcioned Krishna and the fair-complexioned Balarama, on either side. Source: Wikipedia.

Fig 2: Amun, Mut and Khonsu- The Theban Triad. Khonsu is in the center, flanked by the dark-complexioned Amun and the fair-complexioned Mut.

But the question is how did an entire pantheon of deities, along with associated ceremonies, rites and rituals migrate from India to Egypt, at a time when the existing pantheon and religious beliefs of the Egyptians was already well formulated? What historical events could have led to this?

In order to understand this sudden influx of Vedic beliefs into the religious practices of the ancient Egyptians, it is important to recount a critical event that took place before the beginning of the New Kingdom in Egypt i.e. prior to 1550 BC. Sometime during 1700 BC, Egypt had been overrun by a group of irreligious, nomadic invaders known as the Hyskos (which means “rulers of foreign countries”). The term was chiefly used during the Middle Kingdom to refer to the nomadic Semitic tribes of Canaan and Syria. As per the Egyptian accounts, the Hyskos had burnt the Egyptian cities to the ground, destroyed all their temples and had led their women and children into slavery. This was a time of great suffering for the Egyptian people. During this time, the Egyptian pharaohs had been forced to retreat south, driven into the neighbouring kingdom of Kush (Nubia), which was also referred to as “Ethiopia” by the classical Greek historians (although this region now falls within the boundaries of modern Sudan). The pharaoh Ahmose secured the favor of the Kushites by marrying Nefertari, the black princess of Ethiopia. She was of a very dark complexion, and was the most venerated woman in all of Egyptian history. Egyptologist George Rawlinson, in his book  Ancient Egypt, says about King Ahmose (referred to as Aahmes):

“He married a princess, who took on the name of Nefet-ari-Aahmes , or “the beautiful companion of Aahmes,” and who is represented on the monuments with pleasing features, but a complexion of ebon blackness. It is certainly wrong to call her a “negress;” she was an Ethiopian of the best physical type; and her marriage with Aahmes may have been based upon a political motive. The Egyptian Pharaohs from time to time allied themselves with the monarchs of the south, partly to obtain the aid of Ethiopian troops in their wars, partly with a view of claiming, in the right of their wives, dominion over the Upper Nile region. Aahmes may have been the first to do this; or he may simply have followed the example of his predecessors, who, forced by the Hyksos to the south, had contracted marriages with the families of Ethiopian rulers.”

Armed with the financial and military help of the Kushites, the Hyskos invaders of Egypt were finally evicted from the country after 200 years of occupation. During this time, the pharaohs Kamose and Ahmose had fought under the banner of their new-found god: Amun. This event, which took place at around 1550 BC, signified the beginning of the 18th dynasty, which is acknowledged as the greatest royal family of Egypt. Ahmose became the first pharaoh of the 18th dynasty. Amun became the supreme protector god of the monarchy and the state, and his priesthood gained immense power. Magnificent temple complexes dedicated to Amun were established in Karnak. Since Amun came to the aid of the Egyptian people at the time of their greatest distress and ignominy, his cult became all powerful, and dwarfed all the other gods and goddesses of the Egyptian pantheon.

This historical event indicates that the worship of Amun must have passed on to Egypt from the ancient Kushites of Ethiopia. The 18th dynasty pharaohs continued to maintain strong matrimonial connections with their Kushite neighbours, and Kushite priests held sway at the temple complex at Karnak. But if that were the case, then how did the worship of Jagannath make its way to ancient Kush from India?

Fig 3: Map of Africa in 400 BC, showing the kingdom of Kush and its neighbouring countries. The river Nile flows through Kush and Egypt. Kush was also known as Nubia (The Land of Gold).

It was widely known in the ancient times that the kingdom of Kush (or Ethiopia) was an extension of the Vedic civilization of India. The earliest Ethiopian tradition says that they came from a land situated near the mouth of the Indus, and this has been confirmed by the testimony of Eusebius and Philostratus. Eusebius informs us that, “a numerous colony of people emigrated from the banks of the Indus, and crossing the ocean, fixed their residence in the country now called Ethiopia.”vii These earliest Ethiopians were a people highly civilized, and full of virtue and piety; their laws, their institutions, and especially their religion were celebrated far and wide. Apollonius of Tyana, a charismatic philosopher from the 1st century CE, had travelled extensively throughout the world and held discussions with a large number of philosophers. In a conference with the southern Ethiopians, finding that they spoke much in praise of the Indians in general, Apollonius told them, "you speak much in favour of every thing relating to the Indians; not considering that originally you were Indians yourself".viii Nilus the Egyptian had told Apollonius that, “the Indi of all people in the world were the most knowing; and that the Ethiopians were a colony from them, and resembled them greatly."ix The Encyclopaedia Brittanica confirms this: “all the ancients, both poets and historians, talk of a double race of Ethiopians; one in India and another in Africa”. The kingdoms of the Indians, the Egyptians and ancient Kush were widely regarded as part of one large global empire, and "India, taken as a whole, beginning from the north and embracing what of it is subject to Persia, is a continuation of Egypt and the Ethiopians."x Even now, the culture and traditions of the Ethiopian people bear a closer resemblance to that of India, than to the rest of Africa. The traditional dress and ornaments of the womenfolk, the spicy cuisine which is mostly vegetarian, the rich musical traditions (along with the use of the bamboo flute and the tabla), the presence of the caste system, the respect shown to elders – all of this invoke memories of an enduring connection between Ethiopia and India.

The timeless familiarity of the ancient Indians with the kingdom of Kush is borne out by the detailed information about the geography of Ethiopia that is contained in ancient Sanskrit texts. When Lieutenant John Hanning Speke was planning his discovery of the source of the Nile in 1858, he relied on a map that had been reconstructed by Lieutenant Wilford from information contained in the ancient Puranic texts, with the assistance of some Pundits of Varanasi. In this map, the river Nile, referred to as the “Great Krishna” (because of its deep blue waters), was traced from a great lake called “Amara”. Speke later found that the name “Amara” is actually the native name of a district bordering Lake Victoria Nyanza. The map also mentioned that the real source of the Nile was the twin peaks known as Somagiri – “Soma” in Sanskrit stands for “moon” and “Giri” means “peak”. Somagiri, therefore, refers to the fabled “Mountains of the Moon” in Central Africa! Speke says in his book Journal of the Discovery of the Source of the Nile (1863):

“Colonel Rigby now gave me a most interesting paper, with a map attached to it, about the Nile and the Mountains of the Moon. It was written by Lieutenant Wilford, from the "Purans" of the ancient Hindus. As it exemplifies, to a certain extent, the supposition I formerly arrived at concerning the Mountains of the Moon being associated with the country of the Moon, I would fain draw the attention of the reader of my travels to the volume of the "Asiatic Researches" in which it was published. It is remarkable that the Hindus have christened the source of the Nile Amara, which is the name of a country at the north-east corner of the Victoria N'yanza. This, I think, shows clearly, that the ancient Hindus must have had some kind of communication with both the northern and southern ends of the Victoria N'yanza.”xi

Such detailed geographical knowledge of the Nile and Ethiopia indicates that ancient Kush must have been a colony of the ancient Indians, as attested by various Greek historians. This leads us to wonder: what would have led them to colonize a land that was so far from their ancestral homeland on the banks of the Indus?

Philostratus mentions that the Ethiopians, an Indian race, dwelt in India under the rulership of King Ganges.xii But when they slew their king they were inflicted by a host of natural calamities which forced them to leave their homeland. They founded sixty cities along the path of their emigration, until they settled in the fertile land of Kush. This suggests that the colonization of Ethiopia may have been triggered by a large-scale emigration of people from the Indus Valley due to various environmental catastrophes. At its peak at around 2500 BC, the Indus Valley civilization included the whole of Pakistan, parts of Northern India, Afghanistan, and southern Iran, covering an area of roughly 1.2 million with a population of over 5 million, and constituted the largest urban settlement of the ancient world. Current research indicates that sometime around 1900 BC the Indus Valley civilization was plagued by a series of calamities. There was a long and devastating drought, followed by a series of cataclysmic earthquakes. Substantial portions of the Ghaggar Hakra river system (the “Saraswati” of the Rig Vedas) disappeared, and the Indus River changed its course. The princely state of Rajasthan turned into a desert. Parts of the civilization relocated to other sites along the Indus, and others migrated further eastwards to the fertile plains along the Ganges, and towards the southern parts of India. By around 1700 BC, most of the cities of the Indus Valley civilization were abandoned.

Fig 4: Map of the Indus Valley civilization, showing some of the important sites. Source: Wikipedia.

There was a large-scale westward migration of various Vedic tribes during this time. One of the migrating branches of the Vedic family was the Kassites or Kussites who first appear in Western Iran at about 1800 BC, when they attacked Babylonia in the 9th year of the reign of Samsu-iluna, the son of Hammurabi. The Kussites subsequently captured Babylon in the 16thcentury BC and ruled over it without any interruption for over 400 years. The Kussite pantheon of deities included Suriash (from Sanskrit Surya meaning the Sun), Maruttash (from Sanskrit Marut, a storm god) and Indas (from Sanskrit Indra, the king of the gods). Names of gods also appear in the names of Kussite kings, as is very typical among the Vedic people. Kussite kings established trade and diplomacy with far-flung kingdoms - Assyria, Egypt, Elam, and Hittites – and established royal alliances with them. They also governed with order, introduced advanced technologies, and followed the Vedic policy of honoring the customs and religious beliefs of the peoples whose land they occupied.

Although it is clear that the Kussites belonged to the Indo- Iranian stock of people, and worshipped Vedic deities, their exact point of origin still remains in question. The early Babylonian texts portray them as migrants from the “eastern mountains”. This was interpreted by some historians as a reference to the Zagros Mountains in south-western Iran. This is now doubted, since the Zagros Mountains could not have been the original homeland of the migrating Vedic tribes, and may simply have been one of the mountains that they crossed during their westward expansion. However, if we travel further east, we run into the majestic Hindu Kush mountain range, an offshoot of the mighty Himalayas, stretching between Afghanistan and Pakistan. For centuries, the Hindu Kush was recognized as the “mountains of India” or the “boundary of India”. It is of interest to note that the term “Hindu” is derived from the term “Sindhu”, which is the Sanskrit name of the river Indus; while the term “Kush” was always used in reference to the Kussites (or Kassites, Kushites). This means that the term Hindu Kush could be a reference to the mountain range which defines the “domain of the Kussites on the banks of the Indus” – the erstwhile Indus Valley Civilization. Many Sumerian inscriptions often refer to the Kussites as “Meluha-Kasi”. Interestingly, the ancient residents of the Indus Valley civilization were also referred to as “Meluha” (or Malaha, Meluhha, Mehluha). In fact, it is now accepted that “Meluha” was a term used in the Sumerian region for the Indus Valley civilization. The Sumerian cuneiform texts of the times of the Akkadian king Sargon (c. 2334 - 2279 BC) shows that Babylon had extensive trade with its neighboring countries, including Meluhha. Meluhha was described as a land of exotic commodities, and a wide variety of objects produced in the Indus region have been found at sites in Mesopotamia. Thus “Meluha-Kasi” must be a reference to the ancient Kussites of the Indus Valley.

There is a surprising lack of scholarly resources regarding the expansion of the Kussites, although ancient traditional sources constantly extol their numerous achievements. One of the few scholarly works which addresses this topic is the book, History of civilizations of Central Asia, which was commissioned by the UNESCO, and included participating scholars from Iran, Afghanistan, India, China, Pakistan, Russia and Mongolia and a panel of experts from USA, UK, Turkey, Japan and Hungary . This monumental study concludes that the, “invasion of Babylonia by the Kassites – which caused the fall of the first Babylonian dynasty – was already obviously connected with the migrations of the Proto Indians.”xiii The presence of the Indo-Aryan linguistic terms in the Kassite language, “speaks clearly for the assumption that the people of war-charioteers, which had induced the Kassites to invade Babylonia, belonged to the Proto-Indians.” The study further states that:

“It seems very likely that simultaneously with the movement of the Kassites – and in any case before 1700 BC at the latest, or perhaps even earlier, at the end of the third millennium BC – the immigration of Proto-Indian groups into Hurrian territory began, led by the class of war-charioteers (maryannu). They brought with them a new species of horse, more suitable for the war-chariot, a new method for horse training, described by Kikkuli, the man of Hurri, in a treatise written in Hittite, and a perfected form of the chariot. Through these important elements of their civilizations the Proto-Indians gave an impetus to the development of Hurrian society and, and to the organization of the Mitanni kingdom, many kings of which bore Proto-Indian names. The Proto-Indian tribal aristocracy spread also to Syria and Palestine where it brought about the formation of stage organization based on the class of war-charioteers. Proto-Indian linguistic influence was considerable on the vocabulary of horse-breeding, horse-training, social life and religion as shown by the following list of Proto-Indian terms borrowed by the Hurrians and other peoples of western Asia.”xiv

The Kussites were not the only Vedic tribe that migrated westward, as a consequence of the major cataclysms in the Indus Valley. The Hittites appeared in the upper Tigris-Euphrates basin and ruled from their capital at Hattusa from around 1800 BC. To their south was the Mitanni, who ruled from their capital at Wassukanni (c.1475 BC). The Hittites and Mitanni had concluded a treaty in c. 1380 BCE, which we know as the Suppiluliuma-Shattiwaza Treaty, which invokes the Vedic deities Mitra, Varuna, Indra and the Nasatyas.

However, of all the Proto-Indian tribes that had migrated westward, the Kussites were the ones who had left their indelible footprints over vast swathes of Central and West Asia, and Arica. Hundreds of towns and cities came to be named after them – Kissia, Kossea, Kussara, Kashan, Kashband, Kashgar, Kashmir, Kashi and many many more. Jacob Bryant writes about them in the book An Analysis of Ancient Mythology: "I have mentioned that the Cushites sent out many colonies; and partly by their address and superiority in science, and partly by force, they got access among various nations. In some places they mixed with the people of the country, and were nearly absorbed in their number: in other parts, they excluded the natives, and maintained themselves solely and separate."xv However, in spite of their formidable achievements the contributions of the Kussites have been largely ignored by modern historians. In theHistory of civilizations of Central Asia, the editor Vadim Mikhailovich Masson laments that, “In the present writer’s opinion recent research tends to underestimate or even to deny the role played by Proto-Indians in Mesopotamia in general and in the Mitanni kingdom in particular.”

However, we can construct a picture of what really happened from various traditional sources. The Kussites conquered the southern part of Mesopotamia called Sumer and reached the southern part of the Arabian Peninsula, where they founded many kingdoms, including that of Sheba (present day Yemen). The Kussites then crossed the Red Sea into Northeast Africa and established the renowned African kingdom of Kush. David Gibson mentions that “the descendants of Cush may have split, one part remaining in Asia, the other migrating to Africa to become the Ethiopia we still know to this day.”xvi Hence, (as per the Encyclopaedia Britannica), “it cannot be doubted that the tribes on both sides of that branch of the sea were kindred nations.”xvii Orientalist Edward Pococke describes this long march of the Vedic Indians from their ancient homeland to the fertile plains of Kush: "At the mouths of the Indus dwell a seafaring people, active, ingenious, and enterprising...these people coast along the shores of Mekran, traverse the mouth of the Persian Gulf, and again adhering to the sea-board of Oman, Hadramant, and Yemen (the Eastern Arabia), they sail up the Red Sea; and again ascending mighty stream that fertilizes a land of wonders, found the kingdom of Egypt, Nubia and Abyssinia."xviii

Kush attained its greatest power and cultural energy between 1700 and 1500 BC, during the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt. This is nearly a 100 years after the Kussites first emerged in western Iran in c.1800 BC. This was the time when Egypt was run over by the Hyskos, and the Egyptian pharaohs had retreated to Kush. We know that Amun was the principal god of the Kushites of Ethiopia. Here he remained a national deity for centuries, with his priests at Meroe regulating the whole government of the country via an oracle, choosing the ruler, and directing military expeditions. The pharaohs Kamose and Ahmose would have been introduced to this new cult at this time, and had carried it into Egypt after evicting the Hyskos. In this manner, the worship of Jagannath would have travelled the long distance from its Vedic homeland to the kingdom of Kush, from where it was adopted by the victorious pharaohs of the 18thdynasty.

We also find the indelible footprints of Vedic temple architecture in the grand temple complexes set up by the 18th dynasty pharaohs. The magnificent temple complex of Luxor, whose construction started at c.1400 BC (during the reign of Amenhotep III) after the beginning of the New Kingdom, incorporated advanced Vedic knowledge. The Egyptologist R.A.Schwaller de Lubicz had conducted as 15 year on-site study of the Luxor Temple complex in 1952 and had concluded that the “the various sections of the human body had been incorporated into the proportions of the temple. He found that specific locations within the temple correspond to the seven Hindu Chakras (energy centers) in the human body. These locations actually stimulate experiences and feelings that dowsers and meditators are able to perceive consciously.”xix Thus, the onset of the New Kingdom in Egypt was marked by a sudden influx of Vedic ideas, which we find reflected in its religion, art and architecture.

Fig 5: An aerial view of the Kushite pyramids at Meroe, the capital of ancient Kush. (Source: Wikipedia)

I had also mentioned in my previous article that the ancestral homeland of the ancient Egyptians, which they referred to as “Punt” (also called “Pwenet”) may be India. Punt was referred to as “Ta netjer” meaning the “Land of the Gods” or the “Land of Gods and Ancestors”. Most scholars agree that Punt was located to the south and east of Egypt, and could be reached leading off the Red Sea, in a south-east direction. India too can be reached from Egypt by sailing in a south-east direction by following the ancient maritime trade routes, popularly known as theSilk Route, which led from Egypt to the flourishing ports on the coasts of India. This long journey across the Indian Ocean may have been quite daunting for the ancient Egyptians, since the journey to the land of Punt was considered as “long and hazardous”. It was attempted quite infrequently, but when it did take place, it was executed on a grand scale, involving thousands of people and multiple ships.

The first mention of Punt comes to us from the Palermo Stone of the Old Kingdom, during the reign of King Sahure at around 2500 BC. This expedition returned with huge quantities of myrrh, which is a resin used for making incense that the Egyptians used for their temple rituals, along with precious wood, and electrum (an alloy of silver and gold). Further expeditions took place in subsequent dynasties, in which thousands of men were involved. The most detailed description of the expedition to Punt has been preserved in the reliefs in Hatshepsut's mortuary temple at Deir el-Bahri in Thebes. Hatsheptsut’s expedition had been headed by her Chancellor Senmut, accompanied by a fleet of five ships. They received a warm welcome from the rulers of Punt, King Parahu and Queen Ati, and subsequently returned with ships laden with heaps of myrrh resin, fresh myrrh trees, ebony and pure ivory, gold, cinnamon wood, khesyt wood, incense, cosmetics, along with apes, monkeys, dogs, skins of the southern panther (which the priests of the Egyptian temples wore), and with natives and their children.

All the products of Punt, as depicted in the Hatshepsut illustrations can be found in abundant quantities in India. In fact, the primary export of Punt to Egypt i.e. myrrh for producing incense, was used extensively in India for all religious purposes. Of particular interest in this regard is the relief of the Great Indian one-horned rhinoceros at Hatshepsut's mortuary temple at Deir el-Bahri, which is found only in the north-eastern part of India! In addition, the rulers of Punt during Hatshepsut’s expedition were called King Parahu and Queen Ati –these are clearly Indian names.

More evidence linking pre-dynastic Egypt with ancient India comes to us from the study of cranial features. In 1924-25, an expedition of the British School of Archaeology in Egypt, led by Sir Flinders Petrie, excavated 59 skulls at Badari, the site of the pre-dynastic Badarian culture in Upper Egypt, which flourished from around 5000 BC. These skulls were studied by Miss Stoessiger at University College, London, who concluded that: "Badarian skulls differ very little from other less ancient pre-dynastic skulls; they are just a bit more prognathous. Next to these, they most resemble primitive Indian skulls: Dravidians and Veddas. They also present a few affinities with Negroes, due no doubt to a very ancient admixture of Negro blood."xx In 1972, another study by Berry and Berry cluster Egyptians closer to each other than any other group, but find some similarities with Asian Indians. A craniofacial study by C. Loring Brace et al. (1993) concluded that: "The Predynastic of Upper Egypt and the Late Dynastic of Lower Egypt are more closely related to each other than to any other population. As a whole, they show ties with the European Neolithic, North Africa, modern Europe, and, more remotely, India, but not at all with sub-Saharan Africa, eastern Asia, Oceania, or the New World.”xxi

Fig 6: The Silk Road (both overland and water routes). Source: Wikipedia

Punt was also considered as a “personal pleasure garden” of the god Amun, whom we have already identified with Krishna (or Jagannath). The Boulaq Papyrus from the XVIII Dynasty (1552-1295 BC) describes Amun as the “Sovereign of Punt...Whose fragrance the Gods love When He comes from the land of Punt.”Queen Hatshepsut was an ardent devote of Amun and had actively developed the Opet festival into a grand ceremony. The expedition of Hatshepsut to the land of Punt was done primarily with the objective of acquiring incense and a number of exotic goods for her “divine father Amun”, and was conducted with the blessing of the god Amun:

“Said by Amen, the Lord of the Thrones of the Two Land: 'Come, come in peace my daughter, the graceful, who art in my heart, King Maatkare [i.e. Hatshepsut]...I will give thee Punt, the whole of it...I will lead your soldiers by land and by water, on mysterious shores, which join the harbours of incense...They will take incense as much as they like. They will load their ships to the satisfaction of their hearts with trees of green [i.e. fresh] incense, and all the good things of the land.'xxii

Queen Hatshepsut had also returned with many species of trees from her expedition to Punt, specifically myrrh trees. On the walls of her mortuary temple at Deir el-Bahri she mentions that she had complied with the wish of the god Amun-Re, her father, to have a grove of myrrh trees “for ointment for the divine limbs”. She says: "I have hearkened to my father...commanding me to establish for him a Punt in his house, to plant the trees of God's Land beside his temple, in his garden."xxiiiThe clear association between Amun and Punt indicates that Punt can be no other than India.

A very interesting discovery was made in 2003, by a team of British and Egyptian conservators under the aegis of the British Museum, working on the tomb of Elkab's 17th dynasty (c.1600-1550 BC) governor Sobeknakht. They “stumbled upon an inscription believed to be the first evidence of a huge attack from the south on Elkab and Egypt by the Kingdom of Kush and its allies from the land of Punt, during the 17th dynasty”xxiv. This is during the same time that the pharaohs Kamose and Ahmose were in exile in Kush, preparing to launch an attack on the Hyskos. If Punt is India, then the “allies from the land of Punt” must be a reference to the Kussites who had migrated to Kush around this time from the banks of the Indus, as discussed earlier.

The migration of the Kussites from the Indus Valley to the Nile, sometime around 1700 – 1600 BC, or even earlier, as a result of the cataclysmic events in the Indus Valley, represents a forgotten, and often ignored, episode of human history which explains some remarkable similarities between the ancient civilizations of India, Egypt, the Middle East and West Asia. Of course, there were close economic ties between these nations, for many thousands of years prior to this event. However, the transfer of an entire pantheon of deities, along with associated rites and customs, was possible only because of an extensive process of migration spanning over many centuries. The hypothesis appears to be well-supported by evidences from various different sources, and will hopefully be investigated by historians in further detail.

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