dehendriya-prāṇa-mano-dhiyāḿ yojanmāpyaya-kṣud-bhaya-tarṣa-kṛcchraiḥsaḿsāra-dharmair avimuhyamānaḥsmṛtyā harer bhāgavata-pradhānaḥSYNONYMSdeha — of the body; indriya — senses; prāṇa — life air; manaḥ — mind; dhiyām — and intelligence; yaḥ — who; janma — by birth; apyaya — diminution; kṣut— hunger; bhaya — fear; tarṣa — thirst; kṛcchraiḥ — and the pain of exertion; saḿsāra — of material life; dharmaiḥ — by the inseparable features;avimuhyamānaḥ — not bewildered; smṛtyā — because of remembrance; hareḥ — of Lord Hari; bhāgavata-pradhānaḥ — the foremost of devotees.TRANSLATIONWithin the material world, one's material body is always subject to birth and decay. Similarly, the life air [prāṇa] is harassed by hunger and thirst, the mind is always anxious, the intelligence hankers for that which cannot be obtained, and all of the senses are ultimately exhausted by constant struggle in the material nature. A person who is not bewildered by the inevitable miseries of material existence, and who remains aloof from them simply by remembering the lotus feet of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is to be considered bhāgavata-pradhāna, the foremost devotee of the Lord. (Srimad Bhagavatam).PURPORTAccording to Śrīla Madhvācārya there are three classes of intelligent living beings within this world, namely the demigods, ordinary human beings, and demons.A living being endowed with all auspicious qualities — in other words, a highly advanced devotee of the Lord — either on the earth or in the higher planetary systems is called a deva, or demigod.Ordinary human beings generally have good and bad qualities, and according to this mixture they enjoy and suffer on the earth. But those who are distinguished by their absence of good qualities and who are always inimical to pious life and the devotional service of the Lord are called asuras, or demons.Of these three classes, the ordinary human beings and demons are terribly afflicted by birth, death and hunger, whereas the godly persons, the demigods, are aloof from such bodily distress. The demigods remain aloof from such distress because they are enjoying the results of their pious activities; by the laws of karma, they are unaware of the gross suffering of the material world.As the Lord says in Bhagavad-gītā:-trai-vidyā māḿ soma-pāḥ pūta-pāpāyajñair iṣṭvā svar-gatiḿ prārthayantete puṇyam āsādya surendra-lokamaśnanti divyān divi deva-bhogānSYNONYMStrai-vidyāḥ — the knowers of the three Vedas; mām — Me; soma-pāḥ — drinkers of soma juice; pūta — purified; pāpāḥ — of sins; yajñaiḥ — with sacrifices;iṣṭvā — worshiping; svaḥ-gatim — passage to heaven; prārthayante — pray for; te — they; puṇyam — pious; āsādya — attaining; sura-indra — of Indra; lokam— the world; aśnanti — enjoy; divyān — celestial; divi — in heaven; deva-bhogān — the pleasures of the gods.TRANSLATIONThose who study the Vedas and drink the soma juice, seeking the heavenly planets, worship Me indirectly. Purified of sinful reactions, they take birth on the pious, heavenly planet of Indra, where they enjoy godly delights.But the next verse of Bhagavad-gītā says that when one uses up the results of these pious activities, one has to forfeit his status as a demigod, along with the pleasure of the heavenly kingdom, and return to earth as a nara, or ordinary human being.te taḿ bhuktvā svarga-lokaḿ viśālaḿkṣīṇe puṇye martya-lokaḿ viśantievaḿ trayī-dharmam anuprapannāgatāgataḿ kāma-kāmā labhanteSYNONYMSte — they; tam — that; bhuktvā — enjoying; svarga-lokam — heaven; viśālam — vast; kṣīṇe — being exhausted; puṇye — the results of their pious activities;martya-lokam — to the mortal earth; viśanti — fall down; evam — thus; trayī — of the three Vedas; dharmam — doctrines; anuprapannāḥ — following;gata-āgatam — death and birth; kāma-kāmāḥ — desiring sense enjoyments; labhante — attain.TRANSLATIONWhen they have thus enjoyed vast heavenly sense pleasure and the results of their pious activities are exhausted, they return to this mortal planet again. Thus those who seek sense enjoyment by adhering to the principles of the three Vedas achieve only repeated birth and death.In fact the laws of nature are so subtle that one may not even return to earth as a human, but may take birth as an insect or tree, depending on the particular configuration of his karma.The pure devotee of the Lord, however, does not experience material misery, because he has given up the bodily concept of life and identifies himself correctly as an eternal servitor of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa. As stated by the Lord Himself in Bhagavad-gītā:-rāja-vidyā rāja-guhyaḿpavitram idam uttamampratyakṣāvagamaḿ dharmyaḿsu-sukhaḿ kartum avyayamSYNONYMSrāja-vidyā — the king of education; rāja-guhyam — the king of confidential knowledge; pavitram — the purest; idam — this; uttamam — transcendental;pratyakṣa — by direct experience; avagamam — understood; dharmyam — the principle of religion; su-sukham — very happy; kartum — to execute; avyayam— everlasting.TRANSLATIONThis knowledge is the king of education, the most secret of all secrets. It is the purest knowledge, and because it gives direct perception of the self by realization, it is the perfection of religion. It is everlasting, and it is joyfully performed.Even in the stage of regulative practice, the process of bhakti-yoga is very joyful.Similarly, Locana dāsa Ṭhākura, a near contemporary of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, said, saba avatāra sāra śiromaṇi kevala ānanda-kāṇḍa. Although there are various kāṇḍas, or divisions, of Vedic discipline, such as karma-kāṇḍa(fruitive ceremonies) and jñāna-kāṇḍa (regulated speculation),Caitanya Mahāprabhu's hari-nāma sańkīrtana movement is kevala ānanda-kāṇḍa, the pathway of pure bliss.Simply by chanting the holy names of Kṛṣṇa, eating the remnants of sumptuous food offered to the Supreme Lord and hearing the enchanting pastimes of the Personality of Godhead, one merges into an ocean of bliss called Kṛṣṇa consciousness.Fortunately this blissful ocean is the eternal situation of every living entity, provided he gives up all of his bogus concepts of life. One should not identify himself as a gross material body, nor as a fickle mind, nor as speculative intelligence, nor should one foolishly identify himself with the so-called void of Buddhist imagination.Nor should one even identify himself with the ocean of impersonal spiritual life called the brahmajyoti, which illuminates the great outdoors of the spiritual sky beyond the covered universe. One should rather identify himself correctly as an eternal individual servant of the supreme individual Personality of Godhead.By this simple admission of one's constitutional position and by sincere engagement in the service of the lotus feet of the Lord, one is quickly promoted to direct participation in the eternal pastimes of Kṛṣṇa, just as Arjuna got the opportunity to play with Kṛṣṇa as a soldier on the Battlefield of Kurukṣetra.Śrīla Madhvācārya has given an elaborate description of the process by which material miseries arise. When a conditioned soul of demoniac mentality identifies himself with the gross material body, he undergoes miseries of constant drowsiness and unquenchable sexual desires that burn all mental peace and serenity to ashes.When a demoniac person identifies himself with prāṇa, the life air, he suffers from hunger, and by identifying himself with the mind he suffers panic, fear, and hankering that ends in disappointment. When he identifies himself with intelligence, he suffers profound existential bitterness and frustration deep within his heart.When he identifies himself with the false ego, he feels inferiority, thinking, "I am so low." And when he identifies himself with the process of consciousness, he is haunted by memories of the past. When a demon tries to impose himself as the ruler of all living beings, all of these miseries expand simultaneously.According to Śrīpāda Madhvācārya, sinful life is the demoniac standard for happiness. We can observe that in demoniac societies the dark, late hours of night are considered most appropriate for recreational activity. When a demon hears that someone is rising at four o'clock in the morning to take advantage of the godly early-morning hours, he is astonished and bewildered.Therefore it is said in Bhagavad-gītā:-yā niśā sarva-bhūtānāḿtasyāḿ jāgarti saḿyamīyasyāḿ jāgrati bhūtānisā niśā paśyato muneḥSYNONYMSyā — what; niśā — is night; sarva — all; bhūtānām — of living entities; tasyām — in that; jāgarti — is wakeful; saḿyamī — the self-controlled; yasyām — inwhich; jāgrati — are awake; bhūtāni — all beings; sā — that is; niśā — night; paśyataḥ — for the introspective; muneḥ — sage.TRANSLATIONWhat is night for all beings is the time of awakening for the self-controlled; and the time of awakening for all beings is night for the introspective sage.Śrīla Prabhupāda has commented, "There are two classes of intelligent men. The one is intelligent in material activities for sense gratification, and the other is introspective and awake to the cultivation of self-realization."Thus the more one can increase illicit sex, intoxication, meat-eating and gambling, the more one advances his prestige in a demoniac society, whereas in a godly society based on Kṛṣṇa consciousness these things are abolished completely. Similarly, as one becomes blissfully attached to the holy name and pastimes of Kṛṣṇa, one becomes more and more alienated from the demoniac society.The demons are self-proclaimed enemies of the Supreme Lord, and they mock His kingdom. Thus they are described by Śrīla Madhvācārya as adho-gateḥ, or those who have purchased their tickets to the darkest regions of hell. On the other hand, if one is undisturbed by the miseries of material life, he is on the same spiritual level as the Supreme Personality of Godhead.As stated in Bhagavad-gītā:-yaḿ hi na vyathayanty etepuruṣaḿ puruṣarṣabhasama-duḥkha-sukhaḿ dhīraḿso 'mṛtatvāya kalpateSYNONYMSyam — one to whom; hi — certainly; na — never; vyathayanti — are distressing; ete — all these; puruṣam — to a person; puruṣa-ṛṣabha — O best among men; sama — unaltered; duḥkha — in distress; sukham — and happiness; dhīram — patient; saḥ — he; amṛtatvāya — for liberation; kalpate — is considered eligible.TRANSLATIONO best among men [Arjuna], the person who is not disturbed by happiness and distress and is steady in both is certainly eligible for liberation.One can come to this transcendental stage only by the mercy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. In the words of Śrī Madhvācārya, sampūrṇānugrahād viṣṇoḥ.Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura has described the process by which one becomes an uttama-adhikārī. If one is fortunate, he gradually becomes disgusted with the limited vision and activities of the kaniṣṭha-adhikārī and learns to appreciate the expanded vision of the madhyama-adhikārī, who is able to recognize that every living entity should become a devotee of Kṛṣṇa and that one achieves the perfection of life by following in the footsteps of anuttama-adhikārī devotee of the Lord.As one's devotional service gradually intensifies and one repeatedly bathes in dust from the lotus feet of a pure devotee, the harassment of birth, death, hunger, thirst, fear and so on gradually cease disturbing the mind.As stated in Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu:-alabdhe vā vinaṣṭe vābhakṣyācchādana-sādhaneaviklava-matir bhūtvāharim eva dhiyā smaret"Even if a devotee is frustrated in his attempt to eat properly or clothe himself properly, he should not allow this material failure to disturb his mind; rather, he should use his intelligence to remember his master, Lord Kṛṣṇa, and thus remain undisturbed."As one becomes mature in this process of remembering Kṛṣṇa in all circumstances, he is awarded the title mahā-bhāgavata.Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta gives the example that just as a child's ball may be fastened to the end of a rope so that it cannot bounce away, a devotee who surrenders to Kṛṣṇa becomes tied to the rope of Vedic injunctions and is never lost in worldly affairs.In this connection Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura has quoted from the Ṛg Veda as follows: oḿ āsya jānanto nāma cid vivaktan mahas te viṣṇo su-matiḿ bhajāmahe oḿ tat sat. "O Viṣṇu, Your name is completely transcendental. Thus it is self-manifest. Indeed, even without properly understanding the glories of chanting Your holy name, if we vibrate Your name with at least a small understanding of its glories — that is, if we simply repeat the syllables of Your holy name — gradually we shall understand it."The supreme entity indicated by the praṇava oḿ is sat, or self-revealing. Therefore, even if one is disturbed by fear or envy, the transcendental form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead will become manifest to one who continues to chant the Lord's holy name.Further evidence is given in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam:-sāńketyaḿ pārihāsyaḿ vāstobhaḿ helanam eva vāvaikuṇṭha-nāma-grahaṇamaśeṣāgha-haraḿ viduḥSYNONYMSsāńketyam — as an assignation; pārihāsyam — jokingly; vā — or; stobham — as musical entertainment; helanam — neglectfully; eva — certainly; vā — or;vaikuṇṭha — of the Lord; nāma-grahaṇam — chanting the holy name; aśeṣa — unlimited; agha-haram — neutralizing the effect of sinful life; viduḥ — advanced transcendentalists know.TRANSLATIONOne who chants the holy name of the Lord is immediately freed from the reactions of unlimited sins, even if he chants indirectly [to indicate something else], jokingly, for musical entertainment, or even neglectfully. This is accepted by all the learned scholars of the scriptures.na kāma-karma-bījānāḿyasya cetasi sambhavaḥvāsudevaika-nilayaḥsa vai bhāgavatottamaḥSYNONYMSna — never; kāma — of lust; karma — fruitive work; bījānām — or of material hankerings, which are the seeds of fruitive activity; yasya — of whom; cetasi —in the mind; sambhavaḥ — chance to arise; vāsudeva-eka-nilayaḥ — one for whom the Supreme Lord, Vāsudeva, is the only shelter; saḥ — he; vai — indeed;bhāgavata-uttamaḥ — is a first-class devotee.TRANSLATIONOne who has taken exclusive shelter of the Supreme Lord, Vāsudeva, becomes free from fruitive activities, which are based on material lust. In fact, one who has taken shelter of the lotus feet of the Lord is freed from even the desire to enjoy material sense gratification. Plans for enjoying sex life, social prestige and money cannot develop within his mind. Thus he is considered bhāgavatottama, a pure devotee of the Lord on the highest platform. (Srimad bhagavatam).PURPORTAccording to Śrīla Śrīdhara Svāmī, this verse describes the behaviour of a devotee of the Lord. The activities of a pure devotee are devoid of material envy, false elation, delusion and lust.According to the Vaiṣṇava commentators, the word bījānām in this verse refers to vāsanāḥ, or deeply rooted desires, which gradually fructify in the form of activities, for which the living entity becomes subject to reactions. Thus the compound word kāma-karma-bījānām indicates the deep-rooted desire to lord it over the material world through the enjoyment of sexual pleasure and the expansions of sexual pleasure mentioned in the Srimad Bhāgavatam :-puḿsaḥ striyā mithunī-bhāvam etaḿtayor mitho hṛdaya-granthim āhuḥato gṛha-kṣetra-sutāpta-vittairjanasya moho 'yam ahaḿ mametiSYNONYMSpuḿsaḥ — of a male; striyāḥ — of a female; mithunī-bhāvam — attraction for sexual life; etam — this; tayoḥ — of both of them; mithaḥ — between one another; hṛdaya-granthim — the knot of the hearts; āhuḥ — they call; ataḥ — thereafter; gṛha — by home; kṣetra — field; suta — children; āpta — relatives;vittaiḥ — and by wealth; janasya — of the living being; mohaḥ — illusion; ayam — this; aham — I; mama — mine; iti — thus.TRANSLATIONThe attraction between male and female is the basic principle of material existence. On the basis of this misconception, which ties together the hearts of the male and female, one becomes attracted to his body, home, property, children, relatives and wealth. In this way one increases life's illusions and thinks in terms of "I and mine."PURPORTSex serves as the natural attraction between man and woman, and when they are married, their relationship becomes more involved. Due to the entangling relationship between man and woman, there is a sense of illusion whereby one thinks, "This man is my husband," or "This woman is my wife."This is called hṛdaya-granthi, "the hard knot in the heart." This knot is very difficult to undo, even though a man and woman separate either for the principles of varṇāśrama or simply to get a divorce.In any case, the man always thinks of the woman, and the woman always thinks of the man. Thus a person becomes materially attached to family, property and children, although all of these are temporary. The possessor unfortunately identifies with his property and wealth.Sometimes, even after renunciation, one becomes attached to a temple or to the few things that constitute the property of a sannyāsī, but such attachment is not as strong as family attachment. The attachment to the family is the strongest illusion.In the Satya-saḿhitā, it is stated:brahmādyā yājñavalkādyāmucyante strī-sahāyinaḥbodhyante kecanaiteṣāḿviśeṣam ca vido viduḥSometimes it is found among exalted personalities like Lord Brahmā that the wife and children are not a cause of bondage. On the contrary, the wife actually helps further spiritual life and liberation. Nonetheless, most people are bound by the knots of the marital relationship, and consequently they forget their relationship with Kṛṣṇa.Because of this bodily concept of life and the shackles of illusion, the whole world is being violently shaken by conflict arising from envy and lust. The only possible solution is to accept the leadership of the Lord's pure devotees, who are described here.A pure devotee of the Lord who has completely taken shelter of the Lord's lotus feet cannot even consider taking part in material envy and sense gratification. His mind remains perpetually clear and sober, and he is always aware of the ultimate good of every living entity.The Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement is strenuously endeavouring to inform the earth's suffering living entities of the serious need for a brain in human society. A brain racked by fever cannot give proper direction, and if the so-called thinkers of society are burning with selfish desires, they are no better than feverish, delirious brains.Delirious governments are gradually destroying all traces of happiness in human society. Therefore it is the duty of Vaiṣṇava preachers to act on the platform of bhāgavatottama so that they can give clear guidance to humanity, without being corrupted or even slightly attracted by the material opulence that may be offered to a saintly person.All intelligent human beings who are unable to take directly to the process of bhakti-yoga should at least be sufficiently educated to recognize the first-class devotee of the Lord and accept his guidance. In this way human society can be very nicely organized so that not only all human beings but even the animals, birds and trees can make advancement in life and gradually go back home, back to Godhead, for an eternal life of bliss and knowledge.Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura has emphasized that those seriously interested in achieving the perfection of Kṛṣṇa consciousness must live in a community of Vaiṣṇavas.Śrīla Prabhupāda has also mentioned several times in his literature that it is not possible to achieve the stage of perfect Kṛṣṇa consciousness unless one accepts the shelter of the pure devotees by living in the Kṛṣṇa conscious communities being established all over the world by the International Society for Krishna Consciousness.Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura has emphasized that this does not mean that spiritual life is restricted only to those celibate students who can live within a temple compound. Devotees in the gṛhastha order, that of spiritual family life, can also take shelter of theVaiṣṇava community by regularly attending temple functions.Those who are living in family life should daily see the Deity of the Supreme Lord, chant His holy names in His personal presence, accept the remnants of food offered to the Deity and hear learned discourses on Bhagavad-gītā and Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam.Any householder who regularly takes advantage of these spiritual facilities and follows the regulative principles of spiritual life, namely no meat-eating, no illicit sex, no gambling and no intoxication, is to be considered a bona fide member of the Vaiṣṇava community.According to Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura, those who remain inimical to the devotional service of the Lord are to be considered lifeless puppets in the hands of the illusory energy of the Lord.tri-bhuvana-vibhava-hetave 'py akuṇṭha-smṛtir ajitātma-surādibhir vimṛgyātna calati bhagavat-padāravindāllava-nimiṣārdham api yaḥ sa vaiṣṇavāgryaḥSYNONYMStri-bhuvana — of the three worlds comprising the material universe; vibhava-hetave — for the sake of the opulences; api — even; akuṇṭha-smṛtiḥ — whose remembrance is undisturbed; ajita-ātma — of whom the unconquerable Lord is the very soul; sura-ādibhiḥ — by the demigods and others; vimṛgyāt — whichare sought; na calati — he does not go away; bhagavat — of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; pada-aravindāt — from the lotus feet; lava — of eight forty-fifths of one second; nimiṣa — or of three times that; ardham — one half; api — even; yaḥ — who; saḥ — he; vaiṣṇava-agryaḥ — the foremost of devotees of Lord Viṣṇu.TRANSLATIONThe lotus feet of the Supreme Personality of Godhead are sought even by the greatest of demigods, such as Brahmā and Śiva, who have all accepted the Supreme Personality of Godhead as their life and soul. A pure devotee of the Lord can never forget those lotus feet in any circumstance. He will not give up his shelter at the lotus feet of the Lord for a single moment — indeed, not for half a moment — even in exchange for the benediction of ruling and enjoying the opulence of the entire universe. Such a devotee of the Lord is to be considered the best of the Vaiṣṇavas. (Srimad Bhagavatam).PURPORTAccording to Śrīla Śrīdhara Svāmī one may ask, "If one were able to gain the opulence of the entire universe in exchange for leaving the Lord's lotus feet for just half a moment, what would be the harm in leaving the Lord's lotus feet for such an insignificant amount of time?" The answer is given by the word akuṇṭha-smṛti.It is simply impossible for a pure devotee to forget the lotus feet of the Personality of Godhead, since everything that exists is in fact an expansion of the Supreme Lord. Since nothing is separate from the Supreme Lord, a pure devotee of the Lord cannot think of anything but the Lord. Nor can a pure devotee contemplate ruling or enjoying universal opulence; even if given all the opulence of the universe, he would immediately offer it at the lotus feet of the Lord and return to his position of a humble servant of the Lord.The words ajitātma-surādibhir vimṛgyāt are very significant in this verse. The lotus feet of Lord Kṛṣṇa are so opulent that even the lords of all material opulence, namely Brahmā and Śiva, as well as the other demigods, are always searching for a glimpse of the Lord's lotus feet.The word vimṛgyāt indicates that the demigods are not actually able to see the lotus feet of the Lord, but are endeavouring to see them. An example of this is given in the Tenth Canto when Lord Brahmā offers prayers to Viṣṇu, begging the Lord to rectify the disturbances on the earth.A similar verse is found elsewhere in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam:-na pārameṣṭhyaḿ na mahendra-dhiṣṇyaḿna sārvabhaumaḿ na rasādhipatyamna yoga-siddhīr apunar-bhavaḿ vāmayy arpitātmecchati mad vinānyatSYNONYMSna — not; pārameṣṭhyam — the position or abode of Lord Brahmā; na — never; mahā-indra-dhiṣṇyam — the position of Lord Indra; na — neither;sārvabhaumam — empire on the earth; na — nor; rasa-ādhipatyam — sovereignty in the lower planetary systems; na — never; yoga-siddhīḥ — the eightfoldyoga perfections; apunaḥ-bhavam — liberation; vā — nor; mayi — in Me; arpita — fixed; ātmā — consciousness; icchati — he desires; mat — Me; vinā — without; anyat — anything else.TRANSLATIONOne who has fixed his consciousness on Me desires neither the position or abode of Lord Brahmā or Lord Indra, nor an empire on the earth, nor sovereignty in the lower planetary systems, nor the eightfold perfection of yoga, nor liberation from birth and death. Such a person desires Me alone.PURPORTThe position of the akiñcana pure devotee is described in this verse. Śrī Priyavrata Mahārāja is an example of a great devotee who was not interested in universal sovereignty because his love was completely absorbed in the lotus feet of the Lord. Even the greatest material enjoyment appears most insignificant and useless to a pure devotee of the Lord.According to Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī Ṭhākura, the word ajitātmā can also be taken to mean ajitendriyāḥ, or "those whose senses are uncontrolled."Although the demigods are all to be respected as devotees of Lord Viṣṇu, the absence of gross material discomfort in the higher planetary systems makes them tend to become affected by the bodily concept of life, and sometimes they experience some spiritual difficulty due to the gorgeous material facilities available to them. Such disturbances, however, cannot exist within the mind of a pure devotee of the Lord, as indicated in this verse by the word akuṇṭha-smṛti.According to Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura, we can understand from this verse that since none of the material facilities available in any of the universal planetary systems can distract a pure devotee of the Lord, such a devotee can never possibly fall or become inimical to the Lord's service.bhagavata uru-vikramāńghri-śākhā-nakha-maṇi-candrikayā nirasta-tāpehṛdi katham upasīdatāḿ punaḥ saprabhavati candra ivodite 'rka-tāpaḥSYNONYMSbhagavataḥ — of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; uru-vikrama — which have performed great heroic deeds; ańghri — of the lotus feet; śākhā — of the toes; nakha — of the nails; maṇi — which are like jewels; candrikayā — by the moonshine; nirasta-tāpe — when the pain has been removed; hṛdi — in the hearts; katham — how indeed; upasīdatām — of those who are worshiping; punaḥ — again; saḥ — that pain; prabhavati — can have its effect; candre — when the moon; iva — just as; udite — risen; arka — of the sun; tāpaḥ — the burning heat.TRANSLATIONHow can the fire of material suffering continue to burn the hearts of those who worship the Supreme Lord? The Lord's lotus feet have performed innumerable heroic deeds, and the beautiful nails on His toes resemble valuable jewels. The effulgence emanating from those nails resembles cooling moonshine, for it instantly relieves the suffering within the heart of the pure devotee, just as the appearance of the moon's cooling light relieves the burning heat of the sun. (Srimad Bhagavatam).PURPORTWhen the moon rises, the expansion of its rays drives away the distress of the sun's fierce heat. Similarly, the cooling rays emanating from the lotus nails of the Personality of Godhead's lotus feet vanquish all distress for the Lord's pure devotee.According to the Vaiṣṇava commentators it is to be understood from this verse that material lust, exemplified by uncontrolled sexual desire, is exactly like a blazing fire. The flames of this fire burn to ashes the peace and happiness of the conditioned soul, who perpetually wanders in 8,400,000 species of life, vainly struggling to extinguish this intolerable fire.The pure devotees of the Lord place the Lord's cooling, jewellike lotus feet within their hearts, and thus all of the pain and suffering of material existence are extinguished.The word uru-vikramāńghri indicates that the Lord's lotus feet are quite heroic. Śrī Kṛṣṇa is famous for His incarnation as Vāmana, the dwarf brāhmaṇa, who extended His beautiful toes up to the outer limits of the universe and perforated the universal shell, thus bringing the waters of the holy Ganges into the universe.Similarly, when Kṛṣṇa was entering the city of Mathurā to challenge the demoniac King Kaḿsa and His entrance was impeded by a ferocious elephant named Kuvalayāpīḍa, Lord Kṛṣṇa kicked the elephant to death and peacefully entered the city gates.Lord Kṛṣṇa's lotus feet are so exalted that the Vedic literatures state that the entire material manifestation rests beneath His lotus feet:-samāśritā ye pada-pallava-plavaḿmahat-padaḿ puṇya-yaśo murāreḥbhavāmbudhir vatsa-padaḿ paraḿ padaḿpadaḿ padaḿ yad vipadāḿ na teṣāmSYNONYMSsamāśritāḥ — having taken shelter; ye — those who; pada — of the feet; pallava — like flower buds; plavam — which are a boat; mahat — of the total material creation, or of the great souls; padam — the shelter; puṇya — supremely pious; yaśaḥ — whose fame; mura-areḥ — of the enemy of the demon Mura; bhava— of the material existence; ambudhiḥ — the ocean; vatsa-padam — the hoof-print of a calf; param padam — the supreme abode, Vaikuṇṭha; padam padam — at every step; yat — where; vipadām — of material miseries; na — none; teṣām — for them.TRANSLATIONFor those who have accepted the boat of the lotus feet of the Lord, who is the shelter of the cosmic manifestation and is famous as Murāri, the enemy of the Mura demon, the ocean of the material world is like the water contained in a calf's hoof-print. Their goal is paraḿ padam, Vaikuṇṭha, the place where there are no material miseries, not the place where there is danger at every step. (Srimad Bhagavatam).

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