kṛtam ekatareṇāpi
dam-patyor ubhayor api
patnyāḿ kuryād anarhāyāḿ
patir etat samāhitaḥ

Between the husband and wife, one person is sufficient to execute this devotional service. Because of their good relationship, both of them will enjoy the result. Therefore if the wife is unable to execute this process, the husband should carefully do so, and the faithful wife will share the result.

sa yadānuvrataḥ puḿsāḿ
paśu-buddhir vibhidyate
anya eṣa tathānyo 'ham
iti bheda-gatāsatī

When the Supreme Personality of Godhead is pleased with the living entity because of his devotional service, one becomes a paṇḍita and does not make distinctions between enemies, friends and himself. Intelligently, he then thinks, "Every one of us is an eternal servant of God, and therefore we are not different from one another." (S.B.7:5:12).

yathā hi puruṣasyeha
viṣṇoḥ pādopasarpaṇam
yad eṣa sarva-bhūtānāḿ
priya ātmeśvaraḥ suhṛt

The human form of life affords one a chance to return home, back to Godhead. Therefore every living entity, especially in the human form of life, must engage in devotional service to the lotus feet of Lord Viṣṇu. This devotional service is natural because Lord Viṣṇu, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is the most beloved, the master of the soul, and the well-wisher of all other living beings. (S.B.7:6:2).

tuṣṭe ca tatra kim alabhyam ananta ādye
kiḿ tair guṇa-vyatikarād iha ye sva-siddhāḥ
dharmādayaḥ kim aguṇena ca kāńkṣitena
sāraḿ juṣāḿ caraṇayor upagāyatāḿ naḥ

Nothing is unobtainable for devotees who have satisfied the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is the cause of all causes, the original source of everything. The Lord is the reservoir of unlimited spiritual qualities. For devotees, therefore, who are transcendental to the modes of material nature, what is the use of following the principles of religion, economic development, sense gratification and liberation, which are all automatically obtainable under the influence of the modes of nature? We devotees always glorify the lotus feet of the Lord, and therefore we need not ask for anything in terms of dharma, kāma, artha and mokṣa. (S.B.7:6:25).

niśamya karmāṇi guṇān atulyān
vīryāṇi līlā-tanubhiḥ kṛtāni
protkaṇṭha udgāyati rauti nṛtyati

One who is situated in devotional service is certainly the controller of his senses, and thus he is a liberated person. When such a liberated person, the pure devotee, hears of the transcendental qualities and activities of the Lord's incarnations for the performance of various pastimes, his hair stands on end on his body, tears fall from his eyes, and in his spiritual realization his voice falters. Sometimes he very openly dances, sometimes he sings loudly, and sometimes he cries. Thus he expresses his transcendental jubilation. (S.B.7:7:34).

yadā graha-grasta iva kvacid dhasaty
ākrandate dhyāyati vandate janam
muhuḥ śvasan vakti hare jagat-pate
nārāyaṇety ātma-matir gata-trapaḥ

When a devotee becomes like a person haunted by a ghost, he laughs and very loudly chants about the qualities of the Lord. Sometimes he sits to perform meditation, and he offers respects to every living entity, considering him a devotee of the Lord. Constantly breathing very heavily, he becomes careless of social etiquette and loudly chants like a madman, "Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa! O my Lord, O master of the universe!"

tadā pumān mukta-samasta-bandhanas
nirdagdha-bījānuśayo mahīyasā
bhakti-prayogeṇa samety adhokṣajam

The devotee is then freed from all material contamination because he constantly thinks of the Lord's pastimes and because his mind and body have been converted to spiritual qualities. Because of his intense devotional service, his ignorance, material consciousness and all kinds of material desires are completely burnt to ashes. This is the stage at which one can achieve the shelter of the Lord's lotus feet.

yad yujyate 'su-vasu-karma-mano-vacobhir
dehātmajādiṣu nṛbhis tad asat pṛthaktvāt
tair eva sad bhavati yat kriyate 'pṛthaktvāt
sarvasya tad bhavati mūla-niṣecanaḿ yat

In human society there are various activities performed for the protection of one's wealth and life by one's words, one's mind and one's actions, but they are all performed for one's personal or extended sense gratification with reference to the body. All these activities are baffled because of being separate from devotional service. But when the same activities are performed for the satisfaction of the Lord, the beneficial results are distributed to everyone, just as water poured on the root of a tree is distributed throughout the entire tree. (S.B.8:9:29).

evaḿ-vrataḥ sva-priya-nāma-kīrtyā
jātānurāgo druta-citta uccaiḥ
hasaty atho roditi rauti gāyaty
unmāda-van nṛtyati loka-bāhyaḥ

By chanting the holy name of the Supreme Lord, one comes to the stage of love of Godhead. Then the devotee is fixed in his vow as an eternal servant of the Lord, and he gradually becomes very much attached to a particular name and form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. As his heart melts with ecstatic love, he laughs very loudly or cries or shouts. Sometimes he sings and dances like a madman, for he is indifferent to public opinion. (S.B.11:2:40).

khaḿ vāyum agniḿ salilaḿ mahīḿ ca
jyotīḿṣi sattvāni diśo drumādīn
sarit-samudrāḿś ca hareḥ śarīraḿ
yat kiḿ ca bhūtaḿ praṇamed ananyaḥ

A devotee should not see anything as being separate from the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa. Ether, fire, air, water, earth, the sun and other luminaries, all living beings, the directions, trees and other plants, the rivers and oceans — whatever a devotee experiences he should consider to be an expansion of Kṛṣṇa. Thus seeing everything that exists within creation as the body of the Supreme Lord, Hari, the devotee should offer his sincere respects to the entire expansion of the Lord's body. (S.B.11:2:41).

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  • Volunteer

    Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu predicted that the chanting of the Holy Name would be spread throughout the planet, to every town and village. Of course, each town and village is made up of families, and the expectation is that a family would tranform their house into not just a home, but an asrama, where they would have an altar for worshipping the Lord in His various murti forms. Most importantly, the family members would chant together the Holy Names and offer all their food, inviting their friends and neighbors to join them in taking prasadam. They would also observe all the auspicious holy days, and read the revealed scriptures as they are presented by the Sampradaya Acaryas.


    This simple program can take the practitioner to the highest realms of devotional ecstasy without them having to leave their homes, perform severe austerities, or do elaborate sacrifices. This formula is the inconceivable mercy that Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu has brought to us in this age.


    One begins this program by hearing and chanting individually, then introducing this chanting to their family members. Within the family unit, the house turns gradually into an asrama. Then within each village, in due course, the families come together and create a temple in the village where they can engage in the same activities they were doing in their homes. Congregationally they can worship and chant the Holy Names in community. This is the natural progression that is recommended by Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu and all His bona fide representatives. Over the next 10,000 years, we will witness this unfolding take place as the Krsna Consciousness movement continues to spread.


    Although Lord Caitanya appeared 500 years ago, the great breakthrough in this prediction has taken place over the last 100 years, particularly with the advent of A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, who brought this process to the western world in 1966.

  • Volunteer

    In Caitanya-caritamrta, Madhya lila 7.125-9, Lord Caitanya speaks to a brahman who wished to leave his home to travel and serve with Caitanya Mahaprabhu:


    "The brahmana begged Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu, 'My dear Lord, kindly show me favour and let me go with You. I can no longer tolerate the waves of misery caused by materialistic life.' Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu replied, 'Don't speak like that again. Better to remain at home and chant the holy name of Krsna always. Instruct everyone to follow the orders of Lord Sri Krsna as they are given in Bhagavad- Gita and Srimad-Bhagavatam. In this way, become a spiritual master and try to liberate everyone in this land.' Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu further advised the brahmana Kurma, 'If you follow this instruction, your materialistic life at home will not obstruct your spiritual advancement. Indeed, if you follow these regulative principles, we will again meet here, or rather, you will never lose My company."


    In his Purport to the above verses, Srila Prabhupada tells us: "Many people come and inquire whether they have to give up family life to join the society, but that is not our mission One can remain comfortably in his residence. We simply request everyone to chant the maha-mantra: Hare Krsna, Hare Krsna, Krsna Krsna, Hare Hare, Hare Rama, Hare Rama, Rama Rama, Hare Hare."

  • Volunteer

    Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu's pilgrimage

    Holy places visited by Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu Himself are held in a great esteem among the Gaudiya Vaisnavas. They are listed in the summary of Caitanya-caritamrta, Madhya-lila, Chapter Nine "Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu's Travels to the Holy Places":

    "A summary of the Ninth Chapter is given by Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura. After leaving Vidyanagara, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu visited such places of pilgrimage as Gautami-ganga, Mallikarjuna, Ahovala-nrsimha, Siddhavata, Skanda-ksetra, Trimatha, Vrddhakasi, Bauddha-sthana, Tripati, Trimalla, Pana-nrsimha, Siva-kanci, Visnu-kanci, Trikala-hasti, Vrddhakola, Siyali-bhairavi, Kaveri-tira and Kumbhakarna-kapala. Finally the Lord went to Sri Ranga-ksetra, where He converted a brahmana named Vyenkata Bhatta, who, along with his family, became a devotee of Krsna. After leaving Sri Ranga, Caitanya Mahaprabhu reached Rsabha-parvata, where He met Paramananda Puri, who later arrived at Jagannatha Puri. Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu then proceeded farther, arriving at Setubandha Ramesvara. At Sri Saila-parvata, the Lord met Lord Siva and his wife Durga in the dress of a brahmana and brahmani. From there He went to Kamakothi-puri and later arrived at southern Mathura. A brahmana devotee of Lord Ramacandra talked with Him. Then the Lord took His bath in the River Krtamala. On the hill known as Mahendra-saila, the Lord saw Parasurama. Then the Lord went to Setubandha and took His bath at Dhanus-tirtha. He also visited Ramesvara, where He collected some papers connected with Sitadevi, whose illusory form was kidnapped by Ravana. The Lord next visited the places known as Pandya-desa, Tamraparni, Nayatripadi, Ciyadatala, Tilakanci, Gajendra-moksana, Panagadi, Camtapura, Sri Vaikuntha, Malaya-parvata and Kanya-kumari. The Lord then met the Bhattatharis at Mallara-desa and saved Kala Krsnadasa from their clutches. The Lord also collected Brahma-samhita, Fifth Chapter, on the banks of the Payasvini River. He then visited Payasvini, Srngavera-puri-matha and Matsya-tirtha. At the village of Udupi, He saw the Gopala installed by Sri Madhvacarya. He then defeated the Tattvavadis in sastric conversation. The Lord next visited Phalgu-tirtha, Tritakupa, Pancapsara, Surparaka and Kolapura. At Sri Rangapuri the Lord received news of Sankararanya's disappearance. He then went to the banks of the Krsnavenva River, where He collected from among the Vaisnava brahmanas a book written by Bilvamangala, Krsna-karnamrta. The Lord then visited Tapti, Mahismati-pura, Narmada-tira and Rsyamuka-parvata. He entered Dandakaranya and liberated the seven palm trees. From there He visited a place known as Pampa-sarovara and visited Pancavati, Nasika, Brahmagiri and also the source of the Godavari River, Kusavarta. Thus the Lord visited almost all the holy places in South India. He finally returned to Jagannatha Puri by taking the same route, after visiting Vidyanagara again."

  • Volunteer

    Sri Balarama's pilgrimage (Mahabharata 9 - Shalya Parva)

    "Then, given leave by the sages, the Lord went with a contingent of brahmanas to the Kausiki River, where He bathed. From there He went to the lake from which flows the river Sarayu.

    "The Lord followed the course of the Sarayu until He came to Prayaga, where He bathed and then performed rituals to propitiate the demigods and other living beings. Next He went to the asrama of Pulaha Rsi. [also known as Hari-ksetra]

    "Lord Balarama bathed in the Gomati, Gandaki and Vipasa rivers, and also immersed Himself in the Sona. He went to Gaya, where He worshiped His forefathers, and to the mouth of the Ganges, where He performed purifying ablutions. At Mount Mahendra He saw Lord Parasurama and offered Him prayers, and then He bathed in the seven branches of the Godavari River, and also in the rivers Vena, Pampa and Bhimarathi. Then Lord Balarama met Lord Skanda and visited Sri Saila, the abode of Lord Girisa. In the southern provinces known as Dravida-desa the Supreme Lord saw the sacred Venkata Hill, as well as the cities of Kamakosni and Kanci, the exalted Kaveri River and the most holy Sri-ranga, where Lord Krsna has manifested Himself. From there He went to Rsabha Mountain, where Lord Krsna also lives, and to the southern Mathura. Then He came to Setubandha, where the most grievous sins are destroyed.

    "There at Setubandha (Ramesvaram) Lord Halayudha gave brahmanas ten thousand cows in charity. He then visited the Krtamala and Tamraparni rivers and the great Malaya Mountains. In the Malaya range Lord Balarama found Agastya Rsi sitting in meditation. After bowing down to the sage, the Lord offered him prayers and then received blessings from him. Taking leave from Agastya, He proceeded to the shore of the southern ocean, where He saw Goddess Durga in her form of Kanya-kumari.

    "Next He went to Phalguna-tirtha and bathed in the sacred Pancapsara Lake, where Lord Visnu had directly manifested Himself. At this place He gave away another ten thousand cows.

    "The Supreme Lord then traveled through the kingdoms of Kerala and Trigarta, visiting Lord Siva's sacred city of Gokarna, where Lord Dhurjati (Siva) directly manifests himself. After also visiting Goddess Parvati, who dwells on an island, Lord Balarama went to the holy district of Surparaka and bathed in the Tapi, Payosni and Nirvindhya rivers. He next entered the Dandaka forest and went to the river Reva, along which the city of Mahismati is found. Then He bathed at Manu-tirtha and finally returned to Prabhasa." (SB 10.79.9-21)

  • Volunteer

    Devotees and the holy places

    "My Lord, devotees like your good self are verily holy places personified. Because you carry the Personality of Godhead within your heart, you turn all places into places of pilgrimage." (SB 1.13.10)


    The Personality of Godhead is omnipresent by His diverse potencies everywhere, just as the power of electricity is distributed everywhere within space. Similarly, the Lord's omnipresence is perceived and manifested by His unalloyed devotees like Vidura, just as electricity is manifested in an electric bulb. A pure devotee like Vidura always feels the presence of the Lord everywhere. He sees everything in the potency of the Lord and the Lord in everything. The holy places all over the earth are meant for purifying the polluted consciousness of the human being by an atmosphere surcharged with the presence of the Lord's unalloyed devotees. If anyone visits a holy place, he must search out the pure devotees residing in such holy places, take lessons from them, try to apply such instructions in practical life and thus gradually prepare oneself for the ultimate salvation, going back to Godhead. To go to some holy place of pilgrimage does not mean only to take a bath in the Ganges or Yamuna or to visit the temples situated in those places. One should also find representatives of Vidura who have no desire in life save and except to serve the Personality of Godhead. The Personality of Godhead is always with such pure devotees because of their unalloyed service, which is without any tinge of fruitive action or utopian speculation. They are in the actual service of the Lord, specifically by the process of hearing and chanting. The pure devotees hear from the authorities and chant, sing and write of the glories of the Lord. Mahamuni Vyasadeva heard from Narada, and then he chanted in writing; Sukadeva Gosvami studied from his father, and he described it to Pariksit; that is the way of Srimad-Bhagavatam. So by their actions the pure devotees of the Lord can render any place into a place of pilgrimage, and the holy places are worth the name only on their account. Such pure devotees are able to rectify the polluted atmosphere of any place, and what to speak of a holy place rendered unholy by the questionable actions of interested persons who try to adopt a professional life at the cost of the reputation of a holy place.

    "By his piety, Vidura achieved the advantages of the pious Kauravas. After leaving Hastinapura, he took shelter of many places of pilgrimages, which are the Lord's lotus feet. With a desire to gain a high order of pious life, he traveled to holy places where thousands of transcendental forms of the Lord are situated." (SB 3.1.17)


    (...) Places of pilgrimages are meant for eradicating the sins of the pilgrims, and they are distributed all over the universe just to give facility to all concerned for attaining pure existence and God realization. One should not be satisfied, however, merely by visiting the places of pilgrimage and performing one's prescribed duties; he should be eager to meet the great souls who are already there, engaged in the service of the Lord. In each and every place of pilgrimage, the Lord is present in His various transcendental forms.

    These forms are called arca-murtis, or forms of the Lord which can be easily appreciated by the common man. The Lord is transcendental to our mundane senses. He cannot be seen with our present eyes, nor can He be heard with our present ears. To the degree that we have entered into the service of the Lord or to the proportion to which our lives are freed from sins, we can perceive the Lord. But even though we are not free from sins, the Lord is kind enough to allow us the facility of seeing Him in His arca-murtis in the temple. The Lord is all-powerful, and therefore He is able to accept our service by presentation of His arca form. No one, therefore, should foolishly think the arca in the temple to be an idol. Such an arca-murti is not an idol but the Lord Himself, and to the proportion to which one is free from sins, he is able to know the significance of the arca-murti. The guidance of a pure devotee is therefore always required.

    In the land of Bharatavarsa there are many hundreds and thousands of places of pilgrimage distributed all over the country, and by traditional practice the common man visits such holy places during all seasons of the year. Some of the arca representations of the Lord situated in different places of pilgrimage are mentioned herewith. The Lord is present at Mathura (the birthplace of Lord Krsna) as Adi-kesava; the Lord is present at Puri (Orissa) as Lord Jagannatha (also known as Purusottama); He is present at Allahabad (Prayaga) as Bindu-madhava; at Mandara Hill He is present as Madhusudana. In the Anandaranya, He is known as Vasudeva, Padmanabha and Janardana; at Visnukanci, He is known as Visnu; and at Mayapura, He is known as Hari. There are millions and billions of such arca forms of the Lord distributed all over the universe. All these arca-murtis are summarized in the Caitanya-caritamrta in the following words:

    sarvatra prakasa tanra--bhakte sukha dite
    jagatera adharma nasi 'dharma sthapite

    "The Lord has so distributed Himself all over the universe just to give pleasure to the devotees, to give the common man facility to eradicate his sins, and to establish religious principles in the world."

    "Dear Lord, Your personal associates, devotees, wander all over the world to purify even the holy places of pilgrimage. Is not such activity pleasing to those who are actually afraid of material existence?" (SB 4.30.37)

    "Narada Muni continued: Now I shall describe the places where religious performances may be well executed. Any place where a Vaisnava is available is an excellent place for all auspicious activities. The Supreme Personality of Godhead is the support of this entire cosmic manifestation, with all its moving and nonmoving living entities, and the temple where the Deity of the Lord is installed is a most sacred place. Furthermore, places where learned brahmanas observe Vedic principles by means of austerity, education and mercy are also most auspicious and sacred." (SB 7.14.27-28)

    "Auspicious indeed are the places where there is a temple of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krsna, in which He is duly worshiped, and also the places where there flow the celebrated sacred rivers mentioned in the Puranas, the supplementary Vedic literatures. Anything spiritual done there is certainly very effective." (SB 7.14.29)

    yathA nAradIye—
    muhUrtaM vA muhUrtArdhaM yas tiSThed dhari-mandire
    Asa yAti paramaM sthAnaM kim u zuzrUSaNe ratAH ||141||

    It is said in the NAradIya PurANa: If one remains in the temple of the Lord for one muhUrta (48 minutes) or even half of a muhUrta, he goes to the supreme abode. What then to speak of the person engaged in the paricaryA of the Lord? (Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu 1.2.141)

    Going to the Temple of ViSNu or to Places of Pilgrimage
    It is stated in the PurANas, "Persons who attempt to visit the holy places of pilgrimage, like VRndAvana, MathurA or DvArakA, are actually glorified. By such traveling activities, they can pass over the desert of material existence."

    In the Hari-bhakti-sudhodaya there is a statement about the benefit of visiting the temples of Lord KRSNa. As we have explained previously, in VRndAvana, MathurA and DvArakA the system is that all the devotees take advantage of visiting various temples situated in those holy places. It is stated in the Hari-bhakti-sudhodaya, "Persons who are impelled by pure devotional service in KRSNa consciousness and who therefore go to see the Deities of ViSNu in the temple will surely get relief from entering again into the prison house of a mother's womb." The conditioned soul forgets the trouble of living within the mother's womb during birth, but it is a very painful and terrible experience. In order to make an escape from this material condition, one is advised to visit a temple of ViSNu with devotional consciousness. Then one can very easily get out of the miserable condition of material birth. (BRS/Nectar of Devotion, ch. 9)

  • Volunteer


    Dhama ("abode of the Lord") is another type of holy place, more important than tirtha. It designates an area where the Lord's spiritual abode is manifested in the material world on this or other planets.

    Brhad Bhagavatamrta 1.2.94: "The Supreme Personality of Godhead Krsna becomes conquered by the loving service of devotees like myself, and for this reason He resides on my planet, on Svargaloka, and in many other places as well, and enjoys suitable pastimes there. (In the same way Siva resides in Kailasa because of the devotion of Kuvera.)"

    The scriptures mention four dhamas - Badarikasrama (Badrinatha) in Himalayas, Jagannatha Puri (Purusottama-ksetra), Ramesvaram and Dvaraka. As even higher are celebrated Vraja-dhama (Vrndavana, Mathura) and Mayapura-dhama (Navadvipa). The glories of the dhamas are collected in the scriptures called mahatmyas (Mathura-mahatmya, Dvaraka-mahatmya, Navadvipa-mahatmya).

  • Volunteer


    Holy place, or place of pilgrimage, is called tirtha ("ford") because there one can cross the the stream of samsara (cycle of birth and death in this material world) and reach the spiritual dimension. Even a simple stay in such place has a purifying effect which can be increased by following specific spiritual practices. To die there or even on one's way there assures one a great spiritual benefit up to the liberation from the material world. Thus pilgrimage continues to be an important part of life of people in India. In the West the pilgrimage was recently replaced by tourism.

    The holy places are described in the scriptures in detail with their spiritual characteristics. They are usually rivers (Ganges, Yamuna), lakes (Puskara, Radhakunda), mountains (Abu, Sri Saila), forests (Dandakaranya, Naimisaranya), cities (Varanasi, Ayodhya), and places of appearance, life and disappearance of Lord's avataras, demigods or important spiritual personalities. There are many tirthas in India and neighboring countries visited yearly by millions of pilgrims. In the places like Ahovalam, Alalanatha, Bhuvanesvara, Gaya, Guruvayur, Jiyada-nrsimha, Kurma-sthana, Kuruksetra, Tirupati etc. exist important temples and facilities for pilgrims. Holy places in another countries connected with other spiritual traditions (Jerusalem, Mecca, etc.) can be also called tirthas having the same nature.

  • Volunteer


    Srila Prabhupada once made a comment on Bhakti Caru Swami when a devotee asked about his position since he joined the movement relatively later. Srila Prabhupada said, 'He was born more qualified.' From this statement, we can understand that those who take a good birth are born with superior qualities. Those who are born in Vaisnava families, and who accept the opportunity of such a birth (and are not destroyed by others with demoniac qualities) are certainly to be respected. We consider seniority primarily according to one's wisdom and spiritual qualities. Wherever you see such a manifestation, you should understand that there is seniority.

    About seniority & remembrance of Krishna (by Dharmapada das: "The fallacy of hotch-potch astrology")

    So who was Parashara in the first place? There is a nice narration in the Hari Bhakti Sudhodaya (a section of the Naradiya Purana) which illustrates how exalted Parashara was. Apparently, Markandeya came upon a meeting of sages in a forest clearing somewhere. They were sitting in a circle and among them was Parashara, who was just a boy of seven at the time. He was seated on the lap of Vasistha Muni, who was the family priest of Shree Ramachandra, a plenary Vishnu avatara.

    To be seated on the lap of Vasistha is in itself a great honor. But to get on with the story, Markandeya fell at the feet of Vasistha and offered his respects. Parashara, in turn, bowed down to Markandeya. Markandeya disapproved of this and instructed the boy that elders should receive respect and not humble themselves to those of lesser age. Parashara showed surprise and stated that, since he was only seven, he was not an elder. Markandeya, however, cited the sages as defining age as time which is spent in remembrance of Vishnu. Markandeya went on to say that Parashara's devotion was unalloyed and that the boy was in constant contact with the Supersoul.

    Therefore, Markandeya said that, although only a boy, all of Parashara's seven years counted whereas if the time that all others present there had remembered Vishnu were added together it would not exceed even five years. That is why Markandeya considered Parashara to be the eldest person in the assembly.

  • Volunteer

    Om (AUM)

    (TLC study guide:) Impersonal sound representation of Krsna. Hari Nama is the personal sound representation. Om establishes the Lord's absoluteness, in that it is all-inclusive. Krishna says in Gita, "I am OM", but He also says that one must chant OM thinking of Him in order to attain Him personally. Because Om is identified with the Supreme Brahman, Sankaracarya had to undermine it by separating the qualities ascribed to Om, the Mahavakya. Otherwise the logical conclusion that Om and its qualities are ultimately personal would be too obvious. So he proposed other vakyas to be on the same footing as Om. These other vakyas actually stipulate subordinate qualities of Om (tattvamasi, satyam jnanam anantam brahma). (A - Krsna, U - Srimati Radharani, M - jivas).

  • Volunteer

    Fathers, mothers, sons

    Fathers - 3 kinds (Mahabharata Adi Parva 66):

    1. one who conceives the child, 2. saves his life, 3. maintains him.

    Mothers - 7 kinds: (Sternbach's antology Mahasubhasita sangraha 4764)

    atma (or adau) mata guroh patni
    brahmani raja-patnika
    dhenur dhatri tatha prthvi
    saptaita matarah smrtah

    These mothers are the original mother, the wife of the teacher or spiritual master, the wife of a brahmana, the king's wife, the cow, the nurse and the earth.

    Sons - 6 kinds: (Mahabharata Adi Parva 69) 1. received as a gift, 2. bought, 3. brought up, 4. adopted, 5. conceived with other women. Plus one's own.

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