dehendriya-prāṇa-mano-dhiyāḿ yo
saḿsāra-dharmair avimuhyamānaḥ
smṛtyā harer bhāgavata-pradhānaḥ

deha — of the body; indriya — senses; prāṇa — life air; manaḥ — mind; dhiyām — and intelligence; yaḥ — who; janma — by birth; apyaya — diminution; kṣut— hunger; bhaya — fear; tarṣa — thirst; kṛcchraiḥ — and the pain of exertion; saḿsāra — of material life; dharmaiḥ — by the inseparable features;avimuhyamānaḥ — not bewildered; smṛtyā — because of remembrance; hareḥ — of Lord Hari; bhāgavata-pradhānaḥ — the foremost of devotees.

Within the material world, one's material body is always subject to birth and decay. Similarly, the life air [prāṇa] is harassed by hunger and thirst, the mind is always anxious, the intelligence hankers for that which cannot be obtained, and all of the senses are ultimately exhausted by constant struggle in the material nature. A person who is not bewildered by the inevitable miseries of material existence, and who remains aloof from them simply by remembering the lotus feet of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is to be considered bhāgavata-pradhāna, the foremost devotee of the Lord. (Srimad Bhagavatam).

According to Śrīla Madhvācārya there are three classes of intelligent living beings within this world, namely the demigods, ordinary human beings, and demons.

A living being endowed with all auspicious qualities — in other words, a highly advanced devotee of the Lord — either on the earth or in the higher planetary systems is called a deva, or demigod.

Ordinary human beings generally have good and bad qualities, and according to this mixture they enjoy and suffer on the earth. But those who are distinguished by their absence of good qualities and who are always inimical to pious life and the devotional service of the Lord are called asuras, or demons.

Of these three classes, the ordinary human beings and demons are terribly afflicted by birth, death and hunger, whereas the godly persons, the demigods, are aloof from such bodily distress. The demigods remain aloof from such distress because they are enjoying the results of their pious activities; by the laws of karma, they are unaware of the gross suffering of the material world.

As the Lord says in Bhagavad-gītā:-
trai-vidyā māḿ soma-pāḥ pūta-pāpā
yajñair iṣṭvā svar-gatiḿ prārthayante
te puṇyam āsādya surendra-lokam
aśnanti divyān divi deva-bhogān

trai-vidyāḥ — the knowers of the three Vedas; mām — Me; soma-pāḥ — drinkers of soma juice; pūta — purified; pāpāḥ — of sins; yajñaiḥ — with sacrifices;iṣṭvā — worshiping; svaḥ-gatim — passage to heaven; prārthayante — pray for; te — they; puṇyam — pious; āsādya — attaining; sura-indra — of Indra; lokam— the world; aśnanti — enjoy; divyān — celestial; divi — in heaven; deva-bhogān — the pleasures of the gods.

Those who study the Vedas and drink the soma juice, seeking the heavenly planets, worship Me indirectly. Purified of sinful reactions, they take birth on the pious, heavenly planet of Indra, where they enjoy godly delights.

But the next verse of Bhagavad-gītā says that when one uses up the results of these pious activities, one has to forfeit his status as a demigod, along with the pleasure of the heavenly kingdom, and return to earth as a nara, or ordinary human being.

te taḿ bhuktvā svarga-lokaḿ viśālaḿ
kṣīṇe puṇye martya-lokaḿ viśanti
evaḿ trayī-dharmam anuprapannā
gatāgataḿ kāma-kāmā labhante

te — they; tam — that; bhuktvā — enjoying; svarga-lokam — heaven; viśālam — vast; kṣīṇe — being exhausted; puṇye — the results of their pious activities;martya-lokam — to the mortal earth; viśanti — fall down; evam — thus; trayī — of the three Vedas; dharmam — doctrines; anuprapannāḥ — following;gata-āgatam — death and birth; kāma-kāmāḥ — desiring sense enjoyments; labhante — attain.

When they have thus enjoyed vast heavenly sense pleasure and the results of their pious activities are exhausted, they return to this mortal planet again. Thus those who seek sense enjoyment by adhering to the principles of the three Vedas achieve only repeated birth and death.

In fact the laws of nature are so subtle that one may not even return to earth as a human, but may take birth as an insect or tree, depending on the particular configuration of his karma.

The pure devotee of the Lord, however, does not experience material misery, because he has given up the bodily concept of life and identifies himself correctly as an eternal servitor of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa. As stated by the Lord Himself in Bhagavad-gītā:-

rāja-vidyā rāja-guhyaḿ
pavitram idam uttamam
pratyakṣāvagamaḿ dharmyaḿ
su-sukhaḿ kartum avyayam

rāja-vidyā — the king of education; rāja-guhyam — the king of confidential knowledge; pavitram — the purest; idam — this; uttamam — transcendental;pratyakṣa — by direct experience; avagamam — understood; dharmyam — the principle of religion; su-sukham — very happy; kartum — to execute; avyayam— everlasting.

This knowledge is the king of education, the most secret of all secrets. It is the purest knowledge, and because it gives direct perception of the self by realization, it is the perfection of religion. It is everlasting, and it is joyfully performed.

Even in the stage of regulative practice, the process of bhakti-yoga is very joyful.

Similarly, Locana dāsa Ṭhākura, a near contemporary of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, said, saba avatāra sāra śiromaṇi kevala ānanda-kāṇḍa. Although there are various kāṇḍas, or divisions, of Vedic discipline, such as karma-kāṇḍa(fruitive ceremonies) and jñāna-kāṇḍa (regulated speculation),
Caitanya Mahāprabhu's hari-nāma sańkīrtana movement is kevala ānanda-kāṇḍa, the pathway of pure bliss.

Simply by chanting the holy names of Kṛṣṇa, eating the remnants of sumptuous food offered to the Supreme Lord and hearing the enchanting pastimes of the Personality of Godhead, one merges into an ocean of bliss called Kṛṣṇa consciousness.

Fortunately this blissful ocean is the eternal situation of every living entity, provided he gives up all of his bogus concepts of life. One should not identify himself as a gross material body, nor as a fickle mind, nor as speculative intelligence, nor should one foolishly identify himself with the so-called void of Buddhist imagination.

Nor should one even identify himself with the ocean of impersonal spiritual life called the brahmajyoti, which illuminates the great outdoors of the spiritual sky beyond the covered universe. One should rather identify himself correctly as an eternal individual servant of the supreme individual Personality of Godhead.

By this simple admission of one's constitutional position and by sincere engagement in the service of the lotus feet of the Lord, one is quickly promoted to direct participation in the eternal pastimes of Kṛṣṇa, just as Arjuna got the opportunity to play with Kṛṣṇa as a soldier on the Battlefield of Kurukṣetra.

Śrīla Madhvācārya has given an elaborate description of the process by which material miseries arise. When a conditioned soul of demoniac mentality identifies himself with the gross material body, he undergoes miseries of constant drowsiness and unquenchable sexual desires that burn all mental peace and serenity to ashes.

When a demoniac person identifies himself with prāṇa, the life air, he suffers from hunger, and by identifying himself with the mind he suffers panic, fear, and hankering that ends in disappointment. When he identifies himself with intelligence, he suffers profound existential bitterness and frustration deep within his heart.

When he identifies himself with the false ego, he feels inferiority, thinking, "I am so low." And when he identifies himself with the process of consciousness, he is haunted by memories of the past. When a demon tries to impose himself as the ruler of all living beings, all of these miseries expand simultaneously.

According to Śrīpāda Madhvācārya, sinful life is the demoniac standard for happiness. We can observe that in demoniac societies the dark, late hours of night are considered most appropriate for recreational activity. When a demon hears that someone is rising at four o'clock in the morning to take advantage of the godly early-morning hours, he is astonished and bewildered.

Therefore it is said in Bhagavad-gītā:-
yā niśā sarva-bhūtānāḿ
tasyāḿ jāgarti saḿyamī
yasyāḿ jāgrati bhūtāni
sā niśā paśyato muneḥ

yā — what; niśā — is night; sarva — all; bhūtānām — of living entities; tasyām — in that; jāgarti — is wakeful; saḿyamī — the self-controlled; yasyām — inwhich; jāgrati — are awake; bhūtāni — all beings; sā — that is; niśā — night; paśyataḥ — for the introspective; muneḥ — sage.

What is night for all beings is the time of awakening for the self-controlled; and the time of awakening for all beings is night for the introspective sage.

Śrīla Prabhupāda has commented, "There are two classes of intelligent men. The one is intelligent in material activities for sense gratification, and the other is introspective and awake to the cultivation of self-realization."

Thus the more one can increase illicit sex, intoxication, meat-eating and gambling, the more one advances his prestige in a demoniac society, whereas in a godly society based on Kṛṣṇa consciousness these things are abolished completely. Similarly, as one becomes blissfully attached to the holy name and pastimes of Kṛṣṇa, one becomes more and more alienated from the demoniac society.

The demons are self-proclaimed enemies of the Supreme Lord, and they mock His kingdom. Thus they are described by Śrīla Madhvācārya as adho-gateḥ, or those who have purchased their tickets to the darkest regions of hell. On the other hand, if one is undisturbed by the miseries of material life, he is on the same spiritual level as the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

As stated in Bhagavad-gītā:-
yaḿ hi na vyathayanty ete
puruṣaḿ puruṣarṣabha
sama-duḥkha-sukhaḿ dhīraḿ
so 'mṛtatvāya kalpate

yam — one to whom; hi — certainly; na — never; vyathayanti — are distressing; ete — all these; puruṣam — to a person; puruṣa-ṛṣabha — O best among men; sama — unaltered; duḥkha — in distress; sukham — and happiness; dhīram — patient; saḥ — he; amṛtatvāya — for liberation; kalpate — is considered eligible.

O best among men [Arjuna], the person who is not disturbed by happiness and distress and is steady in both is certainly eligible for liberation.

One can come to this transcendental stage only by the mercy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. In the words of Śrī Madhvācārya, sampūrṇānugrahād viṣṇoḥ.

Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura has described the process by which one becomes an uttama-adhikārī. If one is fortunate, he gradually becomes disgusted with the limited vision and activities of the kaniṣṭha-adhikārī and learns to appreciate the expanded vision of the madhyama-adhikārī, who is able to recognize that every living entity should become a devotee of Kṛṣṇa and that one achieves the perfection of life by following in the footsteps of anuttama-adhikārī devotee of the Lord.

As one's devotional service gradually intensifies and one repeatedly bathes in dust from the lotus feet of a pure devotee, the harassment of birth, death, hunger, thirst, fear and so on gradually cease disturbing the mind.

As stated in Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu:-

alabdhe vā vinaṣṭe vā
aviklava-matir bhūtvā
harim eva dhiyā smaret

"Even if a devotee is frustrated in his attempt to eat properly or clothe himself properly, he should not allow this material failure to disturb his mind; rather, he should use his intelligence to remember his master, Lord Kṛṣṇa, and thus remain undisturbed."

As one becomes mature in this process of remembering Kṛṣṇa in all circumstances, he is awarded the title mahā-bhāgavata.

Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta gives the example that just as a child's ball may be fastened to the end of a rope so that it cannot bounce away, a devotee who surrenders to Kṛṣṇa becomes tied to the rope of Vedic injunctions and is never lost in worldly affairs.

In this connection Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura has quoted from the Ṛg Veda as follows: oḿ āsya jānanto nāma cid vivaktan mahas te viṣṇo su-matiḿ bhajāmahe oḿ tat sat. "O Viṣṇu, Your name is completely transcendental. Thus it is self-manifest. Indeed, even without properly understanding the glories of chanting Your holy name, if we vibrate Your name with at least a small understanding of its glories — that is, if we simply repeat the syllables of Your holy name — gradually we shall understand it."

The supreme entity indicated by the praṇava oḿ is sat, or self-revealing. Therefore, even if one is disturbed by fear or envy, the transcendental form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead will become manifest to one who continues to chant the Lord's holy name.

Further evidence is given in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam:-
sāńketyaḿ pārihāsyaḿ vā
stobhaḿ helanam eva vā
aśeṣāgha-haraḿ viduḥ

sāńketyam — as an assignation; pārihāsyam — jokingly; vā — or; stobham — as musical entertainment; helanam — neglectfully; eva — certainly; vā — or;vaikuṇṭha — of the Lord; nāma-grahaṇam — chanting the holy name; aśeṣa — unlimited; agha-haram — neutralizing the effect of sinful life; viduḥ — advanced transcendentalists know.

One who chants the holy name of the Lord is immediately freed from the reactions of unlimited sins, even if he chants indirectly [to indicate something else], jokingly, for musical entertainment, or even neglectfully. This is accepted by all the learned scholars of the scriptures.

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