In the center of the red, white, and green flag of the Republic of India, there is a wheel-like symbol. This symbol commemorates a great man-Ashoka, who is beloved by the Indian people. Although he is not the greatest among all the kings, he is the one most loved by the people. In the era of the Maurya dynasty he was in, the government was harmonious and the people prospered, and the field became very vast. But what is most praised by historians is that he accepted and converted to Buddhism, allowing the religion to take root in South Asia.
1. Conqueror of India
When a group of Aryans crossed the Himalayas and moved to the plains of northern India in 2000 BC, there was already a fairly developed ancient civilization. Ashoka is the successor of this extremely ancient civilization and complicated political system. The reason why he received such a lofty evaluation is that he used these rich heritage for a completely different purpose than before. He advocated a new morality and improved the values of the people by this, making people refreshing.
The early King Ashoka, like his father, grandfather, and other kings, feasted in the court, drank freely with the nobles, or had fun with his wives and concubines. Of course, he also ruled India fairly in the same way as his ancestors. In 261 BC, under the instigation of his officials, King Ashoka led his army to conquer the Kalinga people who lived on the Ganges Plain for the first time. The Kalinga clan was very tough and strongly resisted King Ashoka’s army, but in the end they had to bow their heads to the court. King Ashoka will engrave the list of deaths with the army on the rock and make it public. King Ashoka ordered people to faithfully engrave his deeds of conquering Kalinga on the stone tablet. He believed that this was an unprecedented initiative, and many victors in the past have not left any records.
Most of the victors believe that war is war, and the defeated should not be pity for death, so why should we have mercy. But Ashoka is different from them. He can never forget the tragic scenes he saw during the war. The bloody battlefields, the sound of women and children crying because of the death of their relatives, have been entwined in his ears. Therefore, he wrote in the inscription The last paragraph reads: "After the king conquered and swallowed the Kiringa tribe, he felt very regretful in his heart. Because he had to kill the people or capture captives as a means to conquer such a stubborn and unyielding nation. It is really a sad and regrettable thing. "
He also wrote: "Even if the people who have been tortured, killed, or captured are only one percent, or one thousandth, the king will still feel guilty and uneasy. Even if anyone betrayed by this in the future, the king will choose to forgive. ; To the people living in the jungle, the king will rule them with kindness and justice. If he is negligent, he will regret it. Only in this way, the people will no longer do evil and avoid punishment. The king is loyal. I hope all people can understand the importance of safety and self-control, so that they can enjoy a peaceful and happy life." This is Ashoka's confession to the masses. After that, he seemed to have changed himself, no longer extravagant and debauchery, and converted to the Buddha and believed in a peaceful religion.
After that, King Ashoka stopped going out hunting and reduced the consumption of meat in the palace to 2 peacocks and 1 deer a day. He stopped eating meat and began to practice vegetarianism and worship Buddha. Although he did not prohibit the domestic people from slaughtering livestock, he stipulates that the killing of birds, animals and fish is prohibited for a fixed period each year. It also issued a decree prohibiting people from killing inedible creatures.
He set an example and no longer offered any living sacrifices to the gods. He tried his best to restrict the people from killing creatures on the altar and sacrifice to the gods with pure blood. He often visited temples in various places and built monuments to worship the Buddha in front of the temples. To this day, India still has many monuments built by him. His army is no longer used for warfare, but for maintaining domestic security.
He vigorously opened up roads, cultivated fruit trees, drilled wells, and built many almshouses to accommodate animals and helpless people. He also rewarded the cultivation of herbs, actively advocated art and architecture, and built water conservancy projects. They are also tolerant to other religions. Ashoka loves the people, as long as it is beneficial to the people, he will work hard to do it. In a piece of inscription, he said: "Whether I am eating or in my concubine's room, study, or stable, no matter what I am doing, as long as important things happen, I can come to me. This is my order.
Don't hesitate because of fear. I have always been dissatisfied with what I have done and the way I handle things. For the happiness of the people, I must work hard. Everything I have done is to redeem my past sins of killing souls; maybe my efforts can only make a few people in this city happy, but I hope that all people can enter the world of bliss in the next life. "
In his middle age, Ashoka began to study Buddhism with great concentration. He believed that the meaning of life should be answered from the Buddha's teachings. Ashoka also vigorously promoted Buddhism and widely promoted the teachings of Buddhism. He sent groups to promote the Dharma as far as the Greek civilization in western Asia, and even further countries such as Egypt. The most successful one was the Buddhist group that Ashoka sent to Ceylon in 251 BC. This time the head of the Buddhist group was Prince Mahinda. He may be the son or younger brother of Ashoka. His sister Sanhamitra. Prince Mahinda not only preached the lofty spiritual ideals of Buddhism in Ceylon, but also imparted the superb carving art and irrigation techniques of India to the Ceylon islanders.
During the final period of Ashoka's reign, this huge empire didn't seem to go well. According to legend, King Ashoka gradually ceased to care about political affairs. Everything was resigned to his fate, and he concentrated on studying Buddhism. He gave a lot to monks, temples, good or bad, and even wasted the country's money. Legend has it that he abandoned the throne and became a monk.
Second, the king who insists on faith
Although Ashoka’s various benevolent practices seem to be a kind of compassionate life-long forgiveness, they were also disgusted or even resisted by some people in the upper class of the ancient Indian empire. It is said that King Ashoka confiscated the property owned by the landlord and distributed it to the poor, which aroused the dissatisfaction of many big landlords. The generals in the army were also tired of the ordinary life, and were aggrieved by Ashoka's order to prohibit them from invading the neighboring ethnic groups. King Ashoka even openly defended Buddhists who opposed Brahmanism and prevented animal sacrifices fotballdrakter på nett. This practice aroused opposition from Brahman monks in India where Brahmanism prevailed at the time, and even people from all walks of life across the country no longer Support him.
Although his character is essentially worthy of admiration, there are also many shortcomings. Ashoka is arrogant and arrogant, always thinking that he understands their needs better than the people. For the people’s criticism, they always think that they are ignorant or do not understand the truth and should be forgiven. Therefore, he often paid no attention to these criticisms.
Most of today's history buffs' knowledge of the Maurya Dynasty comes from Ashoka's imperial inscriptions on the cliff stone pillars or the inscriptions on the walls of the caves. These inscriptions have been preserved until now, and they are the most eye-catching batch of ancient inscriptions in the world. These inscriptions are very different from the way the kings of Egypt, Syria, and the Assyrian empire sing praises. King Ashoka did not boast of his power and wealth. He only ordered that his feelings of regret and compassion should be carved on the rock and passed on to future generations.
Ashoka was a sacred pioneer of reforming politics. He was a forerunner. In a society where caste discrimination was rampant in ancient India and Brahmanism prevailed, he was the first to advocate for the promotion of Buddhism's "equality of all beings and the universal benefit of all beings" Spread answers to the world. In particular, his love of peace has been eternally commemorated by the people.